Saturday, June 27, 2009

Arwana Red chili and Red Blood comes from the waters of Kalimantan
West, namely from the Kapuas River and Lake Sentarum. These
is a forest area of turf to create the environment for primitive
these ancient fish. However, the condition of mineral, water environment turf
(black water), and the number of adequate food reserves have been
mengkondisikan both of which influence the evolution of color on the fish
concerned. The influence of geography is also cause tercipatanya
different variations of the morphology of fish, such as body
more wide, spoon-shaped head, red warnah a more intensive,
color and a more concentrated basis.

Name Red chili and Red Blood given based on the view
intensity of color appears. Red chilli color display shows
color of fruit such as chili, while the red blood showed
look like the color of blood. In terms of physical, Arwana Red chili
have the form of tuebuh wider, while Arwana Red Blood more
long and more slender. Red chili wide body to remain relatively
base of the tail, while the Red Blood appear in narrow
gradual. Besides, the Red Cabe tend to have the head shape
spoon, a frame with a thick shell. Red chili also
characterized with a red eye color and width, with the tails of
shaped diamond (diamond). Because the breadth of this Red chili,
sometimes his eyes as if touching the fringe of the top of the head and
the lower jaw. While the Red Blood-eyed white and more
smaller, and has a fan-shaped tail.

The physical morphology above dudah visible at the time of the Arwana
are still small, so that it can be used for early penciri
distinguish them when young. Besides, the young Red chili
tend to have basic green color with a dense metallic sheen,
while the Red Blood sheen has weaker and tend to like
RTG with the young. Red Blood young body also appear more rounded
compared with the young Red chili.

The development of color between red chili and Red Blood also known
different. Red chilli color growth slower than the
growth in the color Blood Red. Difference in achieving full red
This can be between 1 to 2 years. Although the achievement of full red color
different stages of development but will be relatively the same color.
Usually they will transition through the color orange. Some events
Arwana not show a little red color that have this fixed
blanch until 8 years, then changed to red in the full
within 1 month.

Not easy to surmise that in the potential Arwana red. Required
patience and a little business that is not to determine the potential
from a Arwana red. However, with the experience and
patience it will be done.

Green Arowana

Arwana green is another type of Arwana commonly found in
Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar, Komboja, and also in some places in the
Indonesia. Penampakan and color variations may be found in
each region. However in general it can be said
that, in general, gray verdure dangan pattern lines
dark color on the tail. The head and mouth, bigger and more
rounded than the other types of Arwana asia.

Merupakan verietas dari arwana golden dan sering disebut sebagai Arwana
Golden Indonesia (Indonesian Golden Arwana). Verietas ini dijumpai di
daerah Pekan Baru, Sumatera. Berbeda dengan Cross Back Golden (CBG),
warna "emas" pada verietas ini tidak akan berkembang hingga melewati
punggung. Warna emas pada umumnya hanya akan mencapai baris ke empat
sisik (baris sisik dihitung dari bawah, perut), atau lebih baik bisa
mencapai baris ke lima. Seperti halnya verietas cross back, warna dasar
sisik RTG bisa biru, hijau, atau emas. Begitu pula dengan warna bibir,
ekor, dan sirip, kedua varietas ini memiliki keragaan yang sangat mirip.
RTG muda memiliki warna lebih kusam dibandingkan dengan varietas cross
back muda.

RTG boleh dikatakan lebih tahan banting dibandingkan dengan saudaranya,
CBG, dapat tumbuh lebih besar, dan juga lebih agresif. Jumlahnya di alam
relatif lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan CBG, meskipun demikian tetap
merupakan varietas yang dilindungi CITES.

Golden varieties cross back is part of the golden variety Arwana.
Variety is found in different places in Malaysia, such as Silver,
Trengganu, Bukit Merah Lake and Johor. Therefore, they often
given in accordance with the nickname origin, such as: Golden Pahang,
Bukit Merah Blue, Gold Malaysian etc.. Referred to as a cross back, because
This variety will have a gold pass to full back,
at the time of adult fish.

This variety are rare, so the price is relatively more expensive
compared with other varieties. Even can be said is
varieties with the highest price.

Depending on the color scale basis, CBG can be classified manjadi
Purple-Based (basic color purple), Blue-Based (basic blue color), Gold
Based (basic colors of gold), and Silver-Based (silver color base). Arwana
Gold with a gold base color can be reached on the full color
age younger than the other varieties.

Red Arowana

Arwana Arwana red varieties are coming from various places
in West Kalimantan Province, such as from the Kapuas River and Lake
Sentarum. Second place is known as the habitat of the Super Red (Chili
and Blood Red).



Red is full will be visible on the young fin fish, in the mouth and
also mustache. The adult, the color red will appear next is
in various other body parts, especially cheek (gill cover) and
marginal scale, so the fish will have a whole show
effect of red.

Basically, the red Arwana grouped in 4 varieties, the Red
Blood (Blood Red), Red chili (Chili Red), Red-Orange (Orange Red),
Red and Gold (Golden Red). The four varieties is generally given
nickname Super Red Red or First Grade (First Grade Red), although
Therefore in the growth of super red refers more to the Red
Chili and Red Blood. While the two varieties more often in the last
as the super red with a lower grade.

Friday, June 12, 2009

How to Clean a Koi Pond

1. Take a fine mesh net and attempt to net out debris from the water. If the water has a foul, rotten egg odor when you start, stop. You will need a kiddie pool with a net cover and either an air stone or small pump to oxygenate the water. You will have to remove the fish to the temporary container while you drain the pond and remove debris. Make sure the water in the kiddie pool is dechlorinated. Net the fish and place them in a large bowl that will float on the water of the kiddie pool. Cover the bowl with a towel and let it float or hold it in the water for 15 to 20 minutes (with an air stone) for the fish to be acclimated to the water. Then, place the fish into the kiddie pool with a netted cover and an airstone or pump while you clean the pond.

2. If the pond does not have foul rotten egg smell, use a net to take out debris on the bottom. Drain about 25 percent of the water and refill it using a dechlorinator. Tap water is about 50 degrees, so add water slowly to acclimate fish to the temperature change. Use an airstone or small pump to oxygenate the water.

3. During the next day, drain another 25 percent of the water and refill it using the same technique while removing debris you missed.

* Check the debris in the net and remove any snails, dragon fly larvae, or other critters to be placed back into the pond. (wikiHow.com)

Tips by WikiHow.com
1. Buy a tank suited to the quantity and size of your fish, with the equipment they need to survive: A filter and (for tropicals) a heater.
2. Cycle your tank before adding any fish
3. Only add one or two fish at a time, so the filter can adapt to the additional bioload.
4. When you get the fish don't just let it into your tank. Use proper acclimation methods. Just floating the bag doesn't help, either. Although this brings the temperature of water in the bag to the temperature of the tank, it doesn't do anything about other factors, such as nitrate and pH levels. Replace the water in the bag with water from the tank in small amounts over an hour or so.
5. For more delicate species, a slower acclimation process is required.
6. Feed the fish in small amounts. Always feed your fish daily.
7. Perform regular maintenance weekly or as needed.

Are your fish about ready to pack up and move to cleaner waters? Afraid of cleaning the tank because the last time you did it, the fish had clean water, but died from the shock of it all? Make your fish tank shine and your fish happy with this simple procedure!

  1. Decide how much water you will replace and prepare that much replacement water in a clean container. Add dechlorinator according to the package instructions. You can buy dechlorinator at any pet store. Testing kits for other water in the tank, if at all possible. Used correctly, the aquarium siphon will not harm them. However, if you must remove the fish, fill a clean bowl/container with some water from the tank you are going to clean. This keeps the fish in familiar water and reduces shock. Then, gently remove the fish from the dirty tank with an aquarium net, and put them in the new container with the water.
  2. If you have a buildup of moss on tank walls, then use an aquarium sponge or clean, soap-free cloth to loosen it now. Some people leave this alone, as it is preferable to green water and provides food for many fish. Removing plankton from green water requires an old or expensive filter.
  3. Maintain your filter in staggered fashion to your water. When you change your filter, don't change your water. When you change your water, don't change your filter.
  4. If you will change your filter now, too, keep at least some of the media inside the filter intact: it contains beneficial bacteria that help break down the ammonia that the fish produce. For example, if your filter has a sponge in it and a charcoal pack, replace the charcoal and keep the sponge.
  5. Use an aquarium vacuum/siphon to suck out a maximum of 50% of the tank water. If possible, though, keep up with water changes and change only 10% to 20% of the water per week. This rate can climb as high as one third per day in persistent, threatening turbidity. Push the end of the vacuum down into the gravel and move it around. Aim for any visible debris. Generally, the vacuum will take up the debris and the gravel will fall back to the bottom.
  6. Rinse decorative items (plants, rocks, etc.) that were in the tank with clean, room temperature water if they appear to need it.
  7. Scrub the tank with new sponge, towel, or other type of cleaning cloth (be sure that whatever you use

Tips

  • The most important part of cleaning the tank is keeping the water temperature constant. Fish die, usually, from the shock of going from warm to cold water.
  • Put the fish into small plastic air tight bags half filled with old tank water when taking them out to clean the tank. When you've cleaned it, float the bags with the fish in them in the tank for 15-20 minutes. This will ensure that the water temperature is the same in both the bag and the tank.
  • Frequent, small water changes are better for your fish than infrequent, large ones, since abrupt changes in water chemistry or temperature can shock fish.
  • You can pick up a plastic tank siphon at any pet shop or even a discount store.
  • Rinse everything that is going back in to the tank completely, to remove any algae, slime, etc.
  • Change carbon according to the instructions (or don't even use it at all), since old carbon can leak poisons back into the tank.
  • Act fast, as the fish in the bowl are running out of air. If they are breathing air from the surface constantly, put the air hose in the bowl.
  • Live plants cost a bit more than their plastic counterparts, but they can help to keep the aquarium chemistry balanced and healthy.
  • Avoid putting too many fish or fish that are too large in a small tank. They will crowd each other and produce waste too quickly.
  • Do not overfeed your fish. 1 flake per fish, per day. It's bad for the fish and excess, uneaten food can contribute to the production of harmful ammonia.
  • Consider getting your tank a cleaning crew. Shrimp are natural cleaners, eating algae, dropped food, and other debris, plus they're fun to watch. Various bottom-feeding fish perform similar roles. Snails also scavenge, but they can be a bit messy and some types can reproduce prolifically. These critters won't do your job for you, but they can help keep the tank healthy in between cleanings. Ask at a good pet or aquarium store or look them up online.

Warnings

  • Never use cleaners, soap, or chemicals to clean your fish tank, and use a unused cloth/sponge. They will remain on the tank, and get into the water--and then you can kiss your fish bye-bye. Even one drop is enough to kill.
  • Do not attempt to move a full fish tank. Nothing special should remain in water that you polluted with little bottles of magic potion. That much water is very heavy and the seams could fail. Move it two weeks before your next scheduled change of filter, and dump about four fifths of it. (www.wikipedia.com)

Other Tips

How to Make Fry Food Out of Fish Food

  • Place some flakes/pellets in a plastic ziploc bag
  • Close the bag
  • Crush the food until it turns into a fine powder
  • Feed sparingly
  • Try to add different types of food high in protein into the mixture
  • If the powder is too big the fry won't eat it. In this case, go buy some specialized fry food.


Try pairing up females and males who have a particular color or fin pattern you like, to get nice looking fry.
  • If male does not impregnate female, try placing your ugliest male guppy in a seperate jar and place the jar next to the breeding tank. this should result in the chosen male to impregnate the female once he realizes there is competition. if this does not work, you might have to choose a different guppy to breed

Breeding Guppy

  1. Get at least two female guppies per one male guppy, keeping them separate until you are ready for them to breed.
  2. Set up a 5 gallon tank with a heater and gentle filter.
    • This tank should not have any substrate at the bottom. A bare bottom tank is good for baby fry so that you can clean it easily, as well as keep a tally on how many guppies are alive or how much they are eating.
    • Java moss or spawning mops provides a nice hiding spot for guppy fry
    • Guppy fry tend to sink, so use low-floating plants for their cover.
  3. Place the fish in the five gallon tank with similiar condition(temperature, etc.) as the tank they were in before.
    • Set the temperature to around 80 degrees F while the females and male are in the tank together. You should also give them food with higher nutritional value to get them in the breeding mood.
  4. Place the male back into his own tank after the female or females get pregnant. You can tell whether the female is pregnant or not by looking near her anus and seeing whether there is a dark mark in that area, called a gravid spot. All females will have this, but it becomes noticeably darker when the fry have been fertilized.
  5. Wait about three to four weeks. At this point, the female will be ready to give birth. Her stomach should be very large and her gravid spot will be black (red in paler guppies). The red/black spots you are seeing are the eyes of the baby guppies. She will give birth to live guppy babies, not eggs.
    • Some signs of labor are: being very still and secluding herself, shivering (contractions), hanging out near the heater, change in appetite. Also watch how she eats, and take note if she spits the food out again.
  6. Try to be present when she gives birth, but if you cannot be, place lots of plat and hiding spots for the fry, else the mother will eat them. When she has given birth, place her in her original tank, leaving the fry in their own tank.
  7. When the fry are born, tank temperature should be around 78 degrees F.
  8. Immediately remove all dead fry when you see them. Accumulated waste is bad for guppy fry.
  9. Feed the fry , microworms, or powdered flakes, several times a day. Remember that fry are tiny and if you place too much food in the tank, there will be too much waste.
  10. A filter is dangerous to the fry because they are likely to be sucked into it, so cover the end with tights.
  11. Siphon the tank carefully every time it gets too dirty and do 40% water changes every few days to keep the water clean. Remember that the tank should be only about half full, if you are using a five or ten gallon tank, to minimize work on your part.
  12. Move the fry when they get old enough. When the fry are a good size, or about a month and a half to two months old you may put them in a tank with non aggressive fish, sell them to your local pet store, or give them to friends as gifts. Make sure you plan out how you will get rid of all your fry, or how you will store them.

Breeding Guppy

  1. Get at least two female guppies per one male guppy, keeping them separate until you are ready for them to breed.
  2. Set up a 5 gallon tank with a heater and gentle filter.
    • This tank should not have any substrate at the bottom. A bare bottom tank is good for baby fry so that you can clean it easily, as well as keep a tally on how many guppies are alive or how much they are eating.
    • Java moss or spawning mops provides a nice hiding spot for guppy fry
    • Guppy fry tend to sink, so use low-floating plants for their cover.
  3. Place the fish in the five gallon tank with similiar condition(temperature, etc.) as the tank they were in before.
    • Set the temperature to around 80 degrees F while the females and male are in the tank together. You should also give them food with higher nutritional value to get them in the breeding mood.
  4. Place the male back into his own tank after the female or females get pregnant. You can tell whether the female is pregnant or not by looking near her anus and seeing whether there is a dark mark in that area, called a gravid spot. All females will have this, but it becomes noticeably darker when the fry have been fertilized.
  5. Wait about three to four weeks. At this point, the female will be ready to give birth. Her stomach should be very large and her gravid spot will be black (red in paler guppies). The red/black spots you are seeing are the eyes of the baby guppies. She will give birth to live guppy babies, not eggs.
    • Some signs of labor are: being very still and secluding herself, shivering (contractions), hanging out near the heater, change in appetite. Also watch how she eats, and take note if she spits the food out again.
  6. Try to be present when she gives birth, but if you cannot be, place lots of plat and hiding spots for the fry, else the mother will eat them. When she has given birth, place her in her original tank, leaving the fry in their own tank.
  7. When the fry are born, tank temperature should be around 78 degrees F.
  8. Immediately remove all dead fry when you see them. Accumulated waste is bad for guppy fry.
  9. Feed the fry , microworms, or powdered flakes, several times a day. Remember that fry are tiny and if you place too much food in the tank, there will be too much waste.
  10. A filter is dangerous to the fry because they are likely to be sucked into it, so cover the end with tights.
  11. Siphon the tank carefully every time it gets too dirty and do 40% water changes every few days to keep the water clean. Remember that the tank should be only about half full, if you are using a five or ten gallon tank, to minimize work on your part.
  12. Move the fry when they get old enough. When the fry are a good size, or about a month and a half to two months old you may put them in a tank with non aggressive fish, sell them to your local pet store, or give them to friends as gifts. Make sure you plan out how you will get rid of all your fry, or how you will store them.

Breeding Koi

If you want to breed koi, there are several basics that you need to know in order to get started. Select healthy fish of the variety you want. Although you might want to begin a new variety of koi, I suspect many of us don't know enough Japanese to properly name them.

Fish Conditioning

Koi males should be 3-5 years old, 4-6 years is the prime age group for females. Condition them for one year. Make sure they are healthy and well fed. Put them through a hibernation cycle where feeding is stopped for several months. When it is spring, "love is in the O2" for fish.

Bruce says a menage a trois is what it takes. Two males to every female should be placed in the "spawn pond" or tank. This separate area is needed to ensure genetics. When asked how to tell the difference between male and female fish, it became a hands-on presentation when Bruce scooped a male goldfish out of his tank to show the spots on the pectoral fins.

The males will develop spots, not only on the pectoral fins, but also the gill covers. They are little white spots that feel like day old beard. You may notice them chasing the females (they'll also chase males), or rubbing the female's side with their heads. This inspires the female to spawn. Females have bigger abdomens (no jokes, please) and when they are full of eggs, are notably softer.

Setting Up the Location

The fish then need several things to spawn: a place to lay their eggs (media), privacy, proper pond temperature, and water quality.

Media for goldfish can be yarn, attached to a cork that keeps it suspended in the water. For koi, there are many options, not all of them listed here. Evergreen branches can be tied together and suspended. You can grow grass on the bottom, and re-flood the pond. There are artificial media like PVC pipe with nylon rope attached and frayed.

The fry need a place to hang out when they are first hatched, literally. They cannot swim yet, so they need an area to be safe and secure. When selecting media, this needs to be considered.

Spawning temperatures for both goldfish and koi is in the upper 60s and low 70s. The eggs' incubation time is inversely proportional to this. You don't want it too high (they mature too fast and have mutations), or too low (they mature too slowly and have mutations). Bruce says sixty-eight degrees is optimal.

The breeding pond needs to have good water quality. A "springtime" effect prompts fish to spawn. Good aeration and O2 are needed. Remember the size involved here, a very fine mesh will be needed to avoid sucking small fry into your filter. After the spawning is done, an aggressive water replacement is needed. Your nose will let you know.

Most fish will spawn in the morning, between dawn and 9 o'clock. If they are disturbed, this can stop them from "doing the deed."

The Eggs

The eggs are really sticky, and will adhere well. Don't be too worried if the eggs start to grow a fungus-like substance. There are a lot of good eggs in there, too. Good eggs will be translucent. It's the unfertilized eggs that will be white and starting to grow fuzz. (olympickoiclub.org)

Friday, June 5, 2009

Black Koi

It is well understood that Koi fish come in a large variety of colors and patterns. Black Koi are set apart from other Koi varieties due to their coloring and not much else.Koi fish can live for an extended life time even living as long as two hundred years but, normally live for about twenty-five to thirty-five years of age.

They are regularly seen in outdoor ponds all over the world.Koi males can be easily recognized by their concave anal section.They may also display breeding spots on the head. Spawning may result in as many as 1,000 eggs. Baby Koi known as fry will start emerging in about four to seven days, depending on the temperature of the water.

black_koi

www.koibreedingtips.com

Amazingly their color doesn’t emerge until the fry are about three to twelve weeks of age.When the Japanese started breeding these magnificent fish from carp mutations, they only came in one or two colors.With more breeding throughout the years came more color varieties and combinations of patterns.Black Koi can grow to be about thirty-six inches in length.

Like all Koi fish because of their length, black Koi need to be kept in large ponds.The Magoi Koi species is one of the first all black mutations and can grow to very large sized.They are actually a deep bronze but they look black when viewed from above. Because of their possibilities in size, Magoi blood is being reintroduced into other species to hasten and maximize growth potential.

One Species of black Koi fish is the Karasu meaning “crow” in Japanese. The Karasu is another extremely old species. It has black fins and a black body. This species can also have a white or orange belly.Koi have a tendency to change color due to the effects of their environment or due to their diet.

These color changes typically entail the fish going from a duller or brighter shade of color.The Matsukawabake Koi species takes the ability to change color. It is a black Koi that typically has areas or white on its body. According to the temperature of the water or the seasons the color of this Koi fish can change completely.This Koi can turn completely black or completely white.

But, amazingly the Koi will return to its original pattern once the conditions change.First appearing in the 1980’s, the Kumonryu is the most popular of the black Koi species. The name means “dragon fish”. The Kumonryu received its name because some were reminded of the bodies of the dragons depicted in ancient paintings.

Some also thought that these fish looked like dragons ascending through the white clouds in the sky. Like the Matsukawabake, these Koi can also change their color.One of the attractions that draw pond owners to the Koi is the large variety of colors that they come in.

An even more attractive notion is that of having the ability to own a fish that will literally be able to change color before your eyes like some of the black Koi species can.

Koi Filter

koifilterAn extremely important thing to control when raising Koi fish is giving them the proper filtration in a pond environment.

Koi fish are more sensitive to the quality of the water then some other fish and therefore need more consideration when it comes to some of the equipment like filers.

A pond filter helps to control the biological balance in the pond system.It is the job of the filter to remove the waste that the Koi produce. In the wild fish waste is removed because of the volume of the water in the area.

Fish waste is also removed by the water’s current. When fish are in a contained environment they need to have this natural function supplied for them.

Most of the pond filters available have a mechanical and biological function. The mechanical function cleans particles from the water. Gravity and the flow of the water drag the solid waste out of the Koi’s pond water. These particles become trapped in the filter and are then cleaned out by the pond owner during the regular maintenance of the pond.

The biological filtration relies on bacteria to break down toxic waste, also known as ammonia or pH, into less harmful substances like nitrates. Nitrates are only harmful to Koi in large amounts. While it is normal to have continuous amounts of pH on a low level, pH can be harmful to Koi if it is left at a high level untreated.

A good pond filter can still not work properly without a pump to force the water through it. With a big area like a pond, the strength of the filter is not able to circulate the water on its own. The pump pushed the water and circulates it through the pond.


n addition to the pump and the filter, pond owners may want to consider adding a small fountain, a waterfall, or some other water device. It is very important to the fish to have a constant supply of oxygen in the water. Because a fountain or a waterfall stirs up the water, it allows the oxygen from the air to be folded into the water. This is known as aeration.

It is important to test the chemical make up of the water of the pond weekly. You can do this one of two ways. You can either bring a sample of the pond water to a local pet store to have them test it for you or you can purchase a home testing kit and test the water yourself. It is important to keep the chemical mixture in the water at a normal and healthy range for Koi fish.

Owning a beautiful Koi garden does not mean that it is completely maintenance free. Although the time and effort it takes to maintain the pond is minimal, it should be considered when it comes to taking on the responsibility of owning a Koi Garden. Above all, it is one of the most rewarding hobbies that anyone can have.

Feeding KoI

Koi fish are gorgeous in color and more importantly entertaining to own. Most people who own Koi will tell you that they can be trained to eat right out of your hand. Koi will recognize the person who feds them and gather around them at feeding times. With such an enjoyable creature livening up the waters of a backyard pond, how can anyone get bored?

Koi fish are omnivorous which means that they will eat a variety of foods including meat matter and plant matter. They have keen appetites dwelling in water temperatures from 61 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. During the summer months when Koi fish are the most active owners should feed their fish a good quality diet.

Koi receive their food from two sources; their owner and the environment. These fish are an opportunistic eater which means that they will eat whatever comes their way and will fit into their mouths. Koi fish will sometimes nibble on the foliage of underwater plants giving their owners a hard time.

They will also eat a variety of insects that are unlucky enough to get within their range including worms, and snails. Some owners have also reported seeing their Koi pull themselves part of the way out of the water to obtain fallen acorns or nibble on grasses.Koi will also enjoy a variety of foods offered to them by their owners.

Pond owners can offer their Koi a special treat of peas, lettuce, or even watermelons. Koi fish require the right combination of protein, fats, fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Owners can ensure that their Koi are receiving these combinations by feeding them pellet food. Most store bought pellet foods for Koi are made to float at the top of the water so the fish are forced to come to the surface.

With the Koi in view it gives the owner the perfect time to observe the fish. They can make sure they have good appetites, that they are healthy, and that they are free of injuries. A healthy diet results in vivid colors of the fish.During the winter months the digestive systems of these cold water fish slows down.

It is not necessary to feed them. They may nibble on algae at the bottom of the pond but, once the temperature goes below fifty degrees Fahrenheit, any food left in their stomachs can become rancid and cause illness to the Koi.Since Koi have such great appetites, owners do not need to put a lot of stress into how much they are being fed or the way they are being fed.

Because of this, one of the best and most relaxing parts of the day for a Koi pond owner is when it is time to feed their fish.Owners take pleasure in the Koi’s willingness to interact with them and see their fish in a different way. While, it is true that Koi need a balanced diet, when it comes to food, it is all fun and games. (www.koibreedingtips.com)

Sunday, May 31, 2009

Koi and H2o

by. Mike Snaden

The purpose of this article is to offer some explanation for some of the current misconceptions about water parameters pertaining to the term General Hardness or GH. It is unfortunate that a lot of UK koi hobbyists tend to take general aquaculture knowledge, and apply it directly to Nishikigoi. In so much as what is good for intensive aquaculture rearing techniques for food
fishes are also good for Nishikigoi pond management.
The two aquatic cultures have entirely different objectives involved, in what they set out to
achieve for the end result. Japanese breeders and universities are constantly striving to perfect production, growth, and health aspects of Koi. It is accepted that the Japanese are true masters and have made important discoveries that link good koi health, excellent growth and superior
Hi development to many aspects of koi keeping, non more so than the subject of Water
Hardness. The hobby would benefit greatly from attempting to learn from the Japanese professional Nishikigoi industry.

It's all too common to hear some hobbyists say, Mains water in certain areas is too soft, and
should be hardened. It's understandable that Carbonate Hardness (KH) should be elevated,
but the same cannot be said for General Hardness. So the focus of this short article is to offer some explanation as to why this need not be the case in so many instances, and that indicators fromJapan suggest that Soft water should be nurtured and taken advantage of, not necessarily hardened! It is generally accepted in Japan by the Koi industry / breeders, that Koi growth is enhanced in soft water. Hi will become thicker, the shine of the skin (Tsuya) will improve,
and last but not least, the health of the koi will be stimulated and greatly enhanced, hence less problems. But in a general sense the koi hobby tends to believe that Koi are put into Japanese mud ponds because of the high mineral content and low stocking levels will make the Koi potentially grow larger at a faster rate than would otherwise be the case. Whilst there is an element of truth in this statement, it does not show the full picture, and can be interpreted
as a misunderstanding. The fact is many of Niigata's mud ponds have soil that is so dead from
lack of minerals, that only rice (or Koi) can be grown there. However, mud ponds do offer
benefits such as live insects, and plankton

KH Carbonate Hardness or Alkalinity.
Carbonate hardness is essential for the buffering effect it has on the pH of water in a closed
circuit koi pond. If a recorded pH of a given volume of water is 8 and an amount of acid is
added, it is commonly expected that the pH value should drop by the corresponding amount of acid added, if there were little or no Kh value to the water, this would be the case, but the
purpose of KH is to act as a buffer so rather than the acid added to the pond directly
influencing the Ph value, the acid is spent on the carbonate ions in the KH value and only
when the carbonate reserves of the kh value are used up will the acid directly influence
and lower the ph. Hence, if the KH value falls too low, causing the pond water pH to be
influenced too easily by everyday occurrences such as fish respiration, fish urine, waste by-products from filtration system bacteria, plants life and even acid rain, in short just about everything that is considered normal in a pond environment that is capable of introducing
an acid base.
So by these examples it is easy to see why KH is so important. If a pond has a low KH, and
regular pond maintenance isn't carried out, the water will lose it's buffering capability, and
the pH will fall. At first this isn't a problem, as Koi are best suited to a pH of 7.0. But, if left unattended, the pH will fall to dangerous levels, and quickly crash the system. Resulting
in acidic water, and a pond full of either very unhappy or dead Koi, as well as a dead filter. Example: A pond in an area where the water has a typically low KH value This need not be a problem if the system falls into the following criteria, I.E. the pH runs at a steady 7.0, and
pond maintenance is done religiously, perhaps at twice-weekly intervals. The pond is not overstocked; feeding is done in constant measured amounts. There is a good working
knowledge and you understand the pond system and how it functions, plus the checking of
all water parameters are done at regular intervals, leave nothing to chance. But, if non of the
afore mentioned criteria are present it would be the authors advice to keep the pond water
KH well up and therefore well buffered, or disaster will strike! A good KH level should be somewhere in the region of 2 to 6dH. There is no point in running a higher level than 6,
as this will often result in a rise of the pH.
The Japanese consider a pH of between 6.8 and 7.4 to be ideal.

GH. General Hardness.
This is a measure of the amount of dissolved solids (mineral content), E.G. calcium, iron, aluminium, manganese, magnesium, chlorides, etc. GH has nothing directly to do with the KH buffering effects of water, also a GH measurement is no indication of the KH value as the two
are totally separate independent readings. And the only thing they share in common is the
term Hardness in the title name.
For Japanese Nishikigoi professionals, the ultimate goal is to achieve low GH values.
GH can be measured as ppm or dH, (German Degrees Hardness) Many things can effect Water hardness. A typical tap water reading in the Bristol area is around 14dH (250ppm, or parts per million).
In Japan this would be considered high! However many more things can effect and raise the
GH reading of a typical koi pond. Stocking levels, feeding levels, and chemicals will raise
hardness.
This is one of the primary reasons that Koi are grown-on in mud ponds. Water in a typical Japanese Mud pond, is generally between 35 and 85 ppm TDS. The stocking rates employed
with most mud ponds are kept low so that the daily feeding doesn't raise the water hardness.
It is thought by many, the main reason koi kept in Japanese mud ponds grow very quickly. Concrete Koi ponds in Japan are often overstocked, and the water is more likely to be in the region of 150 ppm TDS. This is the one of the main reasons many Japanese hobbyists put
their best Koi back into mud ponds each year, they can then grow in soft water, as opposed
to having their growth stunted with the harder water of a conventional Koi pond, Plankton and micro organisms are another reason. TDS. Total Dissolved Solids.
A TDS reading basically represents a combination of KH, GH, and any other dissolved solids.

The readings below have been taken using a Japanese TDS meter. This meter is sold in Japan
as a 'Water quality instrument'. From the TDS reading given below, we can obviously assume
that a TDS reading of lets say 80ppm, that the KH might be for arguements sake 2dH (36ppm), and hence the GH can therefore be a maximum of 2.45dH (44ppm).
This is just an example to help you understand that in a given TDS reading, a GH and KH in
total when combined, can't exceed the TDS reading, except when allowing for the innacuracy of the test.
The following are pond water statistics compiled over the past three years.

History of Koi

The original Koi were cultivated as food fish by Chinese rice farmers in the 17th century. When brought to the Niigata Prefecture, Japan’s premier rice-growing region, rice farmers there continued to keep Koi as a food source, especially during winter. But somewhere between the 1820s and 1830s, they began to notice that some Koi had amazing colors and markings on their bodies. They then began to breed some of the carp for aesthetic appeal. Some were brought to ponds near the farmer’s houses to make them easier to grow. This could possibly be the beginnings of the Koi as a form of pond decoration.

Although Koi is simply a carp, modern specimens are products of selective breeding over many generations. Koi that exhibited desirable colors, patterns and body shapes were chosen and paired with other top quality Koi to produce better ones. Breeders have toiled over centuries on how to eliminate dullness from the basic Koi variety. These attempts to modify the external properties of Koi have, in a way, affected their physiology; but inside they are basically still the same carp, with similar traits as that of their hardier ancestors.

The basic colors of the Koi fish are red, yellow and white, but as the fish were bred with other types of carp and other Goldfish, the end results is a mix of colors. Koi varieties are constantly changing--being researched and developed, bred and improved, and more more variations are becoming available. Some are "one-time hits" never to be seen again, others become "fixed" and become quality bloodlines, and still others are yet to be dreamed of.

The history of Koi is a colorful one, marked by success and failure along the way. Breeders could not always obtain the end results they were hoping for. However, as with any objects of beauty, enthusiasts will always find a way to bring out the best quality in them, no matter how long it takes.
(koicar10.blogspot.com)

Saturday, May 30, 2009

3 Step Arowana care

Arowana is not a difficult fish to keep. After all, it has survived throught millions of years until man came into its way. All you need is to spend one to two hours p

er week taking care of it and you will have years of enjoyment watching this beautiful fossil dragon swimming in your aquarium.

About Arowanas

Arowanas, which may also be referred to as aruanas or arwanas or “water monkeys”, are large freshwater fish. These bony fish are specially adapted to be top water predators. The term bony refers to the structure of their head. Sometimes these fish are called “bony tongues.” This nickname is derived from the bony structure affixed to the lower portion of their jaw structure. This structure is actually a toothed bone or a “tongue” that can be used to compress prey against the roof of its mouth, which is lined with teeth. Arowanas breath by sucking air into their swim bladder. This is lined with a lung like tissue that allows them to absorb oxygen.

Arowanas are carnivorous. The location of their mouth allows them to be specialized at feeding on surface prey. In South America arowanas have been recorded to leap almost 2 meters. That’s more than 6 feet. These specialized fish prey on insects and birds that rest on overhanging trees. This is where the nickname “water monkeys” comes from. In other parts of the world it is though that arowanas may prey on small birds and bats flying close to the water. In captivity arowanas can grow up to 3-4 feed or around 48 inches.

The arowana is unique because of the extensive care which they provide their young. In many cases it is rare to see parents of other species protecting their young after their eggs are laid. Some arowanas build nests to protect their young while others are mouth brooders. These fish can hold large amounts of eggs inside their mouths. What a great form of protection! As the eggs mature the small fish emerge with the yoke sac still attached. As they age the small fish will being to venture outside the parents mouth, before leaving permanently.

Fully grown arowanas can easily attain 2 feet in length. Arowanas will reach their full length in about two years.

Arowanas are highly regarded by many Asian cultures to be lucky. This comes from their unique appearance. Asians cultures regard them as under water dragons, as they display many traits of the Chinese Dragon. These “Dragon Fish” are thought to bring good luck to their owner.

(Nick Johnson)

Friday, May 22, 2009

Tank Setting For Guppy

I got this tips from www.guppies.com

This process of starting the aquarium is often referred to as “cycling”, which is the introduction into an aquarium of various types of bacteria which utilize the ammonia and nitrite (both toxic to fish) produced by fish waste. This process is accomplished by reducing ammonia and nitrite to nitrate, which is not toxic to fish. This process (cycling) takes an average of 30 days after the introduction of the fish. It can take as little as 21 days, or as long as 60 days without any apparent reason for the differences. There are live bacterial cultures on the market, which can help “cycle” an aquarium faster. These products do work when the bacterial cultures are viable, but fish should still be added very slowly. The following steps are recommendations on how to start a new aquarium while minimizing the hassles and problems:
In the water section there is a sticky on cycling,so you can decide what type of cycling you want to do.
Decide on the size and type of aquarium you want to have.

Decide on the type of filtration you’re going to use. You can choose from under-gravel filters, hang-on-the-back filters, canister filters, overflow filters, or some combinations of these types of filtration. Ask your pet store associate to help you decide which type of filtration is most appropriate for your aquarium.

Set up the aquarium with all of the equipment and add the water. This will include rinsing the gravel, installing the filtration, and setting the heater to the appropriate temperature. Goldfish and other cold-water fish do well at room temperature, while tropical fish need temperatures around 74-80°F depending on the type of fish.

Run the aquarium for 2-4 days,7 being better before adding any fish.

Use starter fish to begin the “cycling” process. Some excellent starter fish include danios, black tetras, and white clouds. Some other recommendations could include platies, other tetras, or some barbs. Do not use too many fish during this “cycling” process. Invariably beginners ask if it’s all right to start with angelfish, catfish, plecostomus, or other inappropriate fish. Resist the temptation to do this, and you will save yourself a lot of grief and disappointment during the first few months of operation.

When you get your starter fish home, float the bag in the aquarium for 15-20 minutes to equalize the water temperature. This is very important, as fish are very sensitive to temperature changes. After equalizing the temperature, you can add about ¼ cup of water to the bag every 15 minutes for 1-2 hours. The fish can then be released into the aquarium. If at all possible, net the fish out of the bag into the aquarium, rather than dumping the water from the bag into your tank.

Be very cautious when feeding your fish, especially until the “cycling” is complete. Overfeeding is the most common mistake made with new aquariums. A fish’s stomach is probably about the size of its eye, so feed very sparingly. Your fish should eat everything you feed them within 3 minutes. If not, you probably fed too much. Just reduce the amount the next time you feed. Fish only need to be fed once a day.

After about 14 days, you can bring in a water sample to be tested for ammonia and nitrite. This will tell whether the tank has begun “cycling”. It can also tell you when it’s safe to start adding more fish. It is not a good idea to introduce additional fish once the aquarium has started to “cycle”. The ammonia and nitrite levels will typically rise to toxic levels during this process. Because you started with hardy fish, they will often survive these toxic levels. Because the increase happens so slowly, they are able to adapt with no adverse effects. To introduce new fish during this process can be very stressful to the new fish, since they haven’t had time to slowly acclimate to the elevated levels of ammonia and nitrite. Unfortunately, they often don’t survive this trauma.

Once the test on your aquarium water determines that your tank is safe, you can begin adding additional fish. Your pet store associate can help you determine which fish are compatible in terms of size and temperament for your aquarium. Add new fish in stages. It’s not a good idea to add a lot of new fish all at one time.1 or 2 fish then wait for 2 weeks then 1 or 2 fish each week after that test your water the same day after about 6 hrs

Do not be disturbed if your aquarium becomes cloudy of hazy during the first several months of operation. This is normal, and usually disappears naturally after 2-3 months.

Routine tank maintenance should begin after the “cycling” process has been successful. Water changes of 20-25% should be performed every week. Fish do not respond well to significant chemical changes in their water. They do much better with small water changes done more frequently, than with massive water changes done infrequently. Adding water to the aquarium to replace water that has evaporated is not a water change. Again, be very sensitive to water temperature when doing water changes.

Cobra
Genes marked with a cobra skin color, such as snakes (snake skin) on the entire body of the male guppy color combination of black, white or yellow. Huge cobra guppy figured that because this is the pattern since the first time can be identified. Changes in the genes found in the common cobra species is known as lace. Gen lace pattern has a more subtle and complex. Because it's easy to variettes, cobra style can be found also in the guppy females.

Metalik
Naming refers to the color blue or dark gray metallic body in the male guppy. Most species are found Metalik Cobra which is a combination of genes and genes metalik cobra. This type of chest and to have a metallic colored body and the back of the cobra figured.

Blue Japan
Blue is the type of Japan came from the wild guppy populations in Japan. Characteristics of this type is the sky blue dipinggang male guppy, because the influence of other genes can vary the color from purple to Turquoise. Latest developments of the type Japan Lazuli Blue is the color generally have a base of the head and tail blue.

Pink White
Characteristics of this guppy is a type of white dipangkal pink tails. This newly identified source of unknown origin. Warnanya bervariasi dari pink ke putih. Variants that have the initial color tinge with red tails, but this time more banyka found with bright solid colors such as blue and white.

Tuxedo
Gen tuxedo black color to give ditubuh the back (waist) as black and blue, but its level of coverage vary. Generally cover the back half of guppy. Gen addition to the influence of tuxedo coloring, also give the influence on the size of the fin. Tuxedo tend to have a larger fin.

Mozaic
Gen mozaic pattern shows wavy lines or patterns on the fin guppy. Pattern characteristics in the blue base of tail and aft to the tail fin. The pattern is always have a stack of blue uniform with a yellow or dark blue with red. To maintain the genes mozaic not easy, he must disilangkan other genes with genes that produce the mozaic figured beautiful.

Grass
Grass is the development of mozaic. Gen grass is shade from the tail fin and back fin guppy in the form noktah-noktah a knife or fine point black or dark blue. Noktah the form of grass that gives the color difference, grass finely figured knife appears on the grass while the red dots on the pattern noktah blue grass. However, at this time both red and blue grass gress have a smooth complexion noktah point. In the early occurrence of the grass color back fin transparant so often called the glass grass

Leopard
Leopard characterized with thick noktah spread on random siripnya dark blue to black. Chance of genes is the development of varieties of mozaic but also can be found on the type of cobra silangan with the type of guppy color plain. When this type is not too much less because so favored by the hobbies

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Guppy Pict





Disease of Guppy Fish

The common disease of guppy is fungi. It must be understood fungus grows in a way that is different from the bacteria. Mushroom spore and grow with the growth with a certain condition.
They have developed a particular form of spore cycle and then changes to organisms called miselium.Jamur this can breed very quickly, shaped like a yarn / thread and form networks, such as a thin layer. While the bacteria that usually attacks the guppy is Mycobacterium piscium, also some other cause.
Needs to make to the effective treatment must make an accurate diagnosis, so that they can overcome the disease arise. Disease that attacks the common guppy fish is:

Saprolegnia.
The characteristics of the fish fell ill is The speck-The speck of white on the fish skin. Teteskan alcohol treatment metapen in place as much as 2 drops in one gallon of water / 4 1.12) liters of water. The next step give the salt and leave some saat.Berikan hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria attached to the fishing nets for 15 to 30 seconds. Or can also be used methyline malachite green or blue or acriflavin as disinfektan.
How the treatment of fish bacterial infection should be given the additional space before the treat.

Disease or swelling Bloat
Fish appear restless, the body appear larger because kembung. This is because fish gut inflammation.
Isolation of infected fish, and enter into one gallon of water that has been dibubuhi salt 2 spoons full English. Leave it for 4 or 6 hours, then add water for 12 hours. Once cured can be returned to the place of origin.

Mouth fungus
The affected fish mouth fungus easily seen from the color white which is located in front of the mouth. White mushroom is a very large colony attached to the fish's mouth, so close to the mouth of the fish can not breathe and eat and can cause fish to die.
Aureomycin treatment using 25 mg to 1 gallon of water add 1 drops of iodine and metopen 2 drops.

Gill disease
The affected fish gill inflammation usually caused by a viral organism. The disease is on the gill opening, lazy and always eat on the surface of water.
The disease is caused by several bacteria and fungi and the most difficult to diatasi.Ciri fish die if this insangnya look ruddy and decompose more quickly from the body.
Some of the ways that have been successful is to give metapen mercurochrome soaked some time together and do a treatment with salt water and provide a more large and broad.

Dropsy
The characteristics of the fish exposed to stomach inflammation, among other fish appear to swim to the base difficult. How to give them 1 tsp each salt English 1 / 2 liters of water, and rendam fish for 3 to 4 hours, then move to fish in areas where the height of water 3 times higher bodies of fish. There are still some common diseases that have been known, for example, head lice or needle.

Guppy Fish Finder

Why called Guppy fish ???

This fish species is actually found in 1856 by German scientist named Wilhelm Peters. However, in the year 1866, again found guppy color with a more varied more than that found previously, namely by Robert John Lechmere Guppy

Robert John Lechmere Guppy discovered this tiny fish in Trinidad in 1866, and the fish was named Girardinus guppii in his honour by Albert C. L. G. Gunther later that year. However, the fish had previously been described in America. Although Girardinus guppii is now considered a junior synonym of Poecilia reticulata, the common name "guppy" still remains. (In Trinidad and Tobago, the common name is "crayfish".) Over time guppies have been given a variety of taxonomic names, although Poecilia reticulata is the name currently considered to be valid.

However, the fish had previously been described by Wilhelm Peters in 1859 on material collected from South America. Although Girardinus guppii is now considered a junior synonym of Poecilia reticulata, the common name "guppy" still remains. Over time guppies have been given a variety of taxonomic names, although Poecilia reticulata is the name currently considered to be valid.

Guppies are native to Barbados, Brazil, Guyana, Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago, the US Virgin Islands, Venezuela.

However, guppies have been introduced to many different countries on all continents, except Antarctica. Sometimes this has occurred accidentally, but most often as a means of mosquito control, the hope being that the guppies would eat the mosquito larvae slowing down the spread of malaria. In many cases, these guppies have had a negative impact on native fish.

Guppy originally living in the brackish swamp water. Fish breeding is a way progenitive spawning so easily classified.
The Guppy fish is probably the most popular aquarium fish species in the world, and is also known as one of the cheapest fish in shops even though some forms may be expensive. Small, beautiful, peaceful, lively, curious and hardy, there are many colourful variations that can be collected and easily bred. The Guppy fish is one of the best choices for beginners, especially children. However, like every fish kept in captivity, these fishes also require proper care and conditions.

Male parent has a bright color, a svelte body, the fin spine is longer, has gondopodium (a bulge in the back of the aft fin stomach) which is a modified form of fin anal fin long.
To have female body fat, less bright colors, small back fin, fin fin the form of stomach halus. beside color, form the basic tail guppy fish also vary.
Guppy divided based on the form of a wide tail (tail width), sword tail (long tail), tail and short (short tails). Each variety has 4 kinds of tails. Variety is the latest Ribbon / Swallow.
This is a new variety of different cross mutation causing genes is the result of cross-marrying of different types of this fish.
Guppy breeding with the litter. Guppy a new child is born can swim well. This occurs because the process of internal fertilization guppy that is happening at the time of marriage gondopodium organ that is located on the anal fin is inserted into the female organ of eggs.
Guppy male will chase the female marries ready. Each time the marriage can be a time of birth 3.
Time of birth at around 3 weeks and a female can produce 60 fry. With understand the process of conception until the birth of guppy fish then need to use a method that marriage guppy can easily be controlled and regulated in accordance with our wishes.
Weakness of cultivation guppy inaccuracy is mainly using a system that marries mass. Techniques used in producing a superior strain guppy in with the F4 or also called the system online.
To find a good guppy usually be found with the female form that has a good head. While searching for the male is usually bright colors are also the most dominant.
For guppy Ribbon, Ribbon is very dominant female, whereas males remain male for normal, so to get a male guppy Ribbon still needed a good normal malel.

Monday, May 18, 2009

This information from IWProductions (bettacare.blogspot.com)

Before you panic and start dousing the tank with every chemical you can find, let's take a look to make sure there's something wrong.

Here are some characteristics to look for in a healthy betta:
-High energy. Most bettas are active much of the time. They do take breaks, but will move around quite a bit, especially if someone comes near them.
-Big appetite. Bettas are big eaters. If you keep feeding them, they'll likely keep eating. Not that you should overfeed your betta, but their appetite is a good barometer to their health and mode.
-A healthy, clean looking body. Bettas have a fairly smooth and uniform body. Their scales should look neat and orderly and their fins should be whole and spread out.
-A bright, brilliant color. This is especially important for male bettas. They should be colorful. Bettas that are dull and drab or look "washed out" may not be doing well.
-Healthy, normal looking eyes or gills. The betta's eyes should be uniform and proportional and the gills should look healthy and smooth. The gills should close well against the betta's side.

Here are some characteristics to look out for:

-Low energy. A betta that sits at the bottom or in a top corner of the tank and mopes around might not be doing well. If this behavior persists then there may be something going on.
-Not eating. Bettas like to eat, so be alert for changes in appetite. If your betta goes on a hunger fast or ignores food then probably it's ill.
-Any strange marks on the body. If your betta's scales are ruffled up, you see sores, or there are any strange growths on its fins or body then that's a pretty clear sign that it's sick.
-Losing color. A betta that's dull and has lost its luster is not doing well. Either something is going on with the betta or its food.
-Look out for swollen gills or protruding eyes. If a betta has a gill disorder or one eye starts bulging that's a sign of some serious and common problems.

If a betta has a gill disorder or one eye starts bulging that's a sign of some serious and common problems.

Keeping an eye out for any changes in your betta's appearance, behavior, or mood and you're a long way towards maintaining a happy and healthy fish. At the first sign of these symptoms it's best to make a water change and isolate the betta.

Betta & Snails


Most Snails are “Hermaphrodites”. Which means they are both male and female. And they can reproduce by themselves. They don’t need a mate. Although, they can reproduce with mates as well. Snails are used most often in tanks because of their ability to eat uneaten food and all other waste. But some of them can create extra waste as well. Be careful if you put snails in your betta fish tank, as the population can easily get out of control.
( www.ebetta.com)

Do you know?
The Crowntail was founded 1997 in West Jakarta, Slipi, Indonesia, and the Indonesian breeder named Achmad Yusuf (Iyus), who called it 'cupang serit' in Indonesian. When Henri Gunawan showed this fish in one of the IBC shows, he named it CROWNTAIL.

Here the tail rays extend beyond the tail edge, producing a crown-like appearance (sometimes referred to as "Combtail"). How much the rays may extend depends on the genetic makeup of the fish. The crowntail trait can be found in bettas of any tail type and shape. For instance it can be seen in VT, D, SD, HM (CTHM = half-sun) and DT. The crowntail gene is recessive (or actually intermediar), but singletail carriers most of the time already show more or less extended rays beyond the tail edge.
(bettysplendens.com)



SUCCES SECRET of ASIAN BREEDERS
Most of the tropical fishes that lives in the rivers and lakes, their natural and best environment is Black Water. Black water have a distinctive brownish tea like colour and contain many dissolved organic materials.

It was first noticed that fishes living around the water where the ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond trees grew are found much more vibrant, beautiful and healthy. Thus started the practice of putting in ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond leaves into aquariums to try and achieve the same condition as those found in their natural environment.


Ketapang Leaves, is aimed for water reconditioning based on betta's environment

The ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond tree is a big 'pagoda-shaped' tree with distinctly tiered branching. The origin of the tree is in Malaysia and Thailand. A noted pecularity of this species is the tendency for its leaves to turn bright red and fall - a rarity in the tropics where most trees remain evergreen throughout the year. The bark, fruit and leaves of the tree have traditionally been used to treat various ailments ranging from skin disease, dysentery, headaches and colic in children. Research has identified properties which could be used in treating hypertension.


Ketapang/Huu Kwang (TERMINALIA CATAPPA, or commonly called tropical almond, badamier, Java almond, amandier de Cayenne, wild almond, Indian almond, myrobalan, Malabar almond, Singapore almond, Huu kwang, Sea almond, kobateishi) tree is known to produce a poison in its leaves and sap to defend against insect parasites. When the dried leaves falls into the river, a strong brown dye is given off. The dye is full of organic acids like humic and tannins.

So the dried Ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond leaves actually release organic acids like humic and tannins which lowers the pH of the water, absorbs harmful chemicals and help create a soothing and calm environment for the fish.



What is Humic Acid? Is it a mixture of several organic acids? Humic acids are a complex mixture of partially "decomposed" and otherwise transformed organic materials. The freshwater humic acids can come from a variety of sources, most of which are on land (decomposing terrestrial vegetation.) These substances wash into lakes and rivers, undergoing further transformations along the way, and ultimately into the ocean.



Humic acid contains Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in varying amounts. It also contains metals such as Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn etc. which can be 'chelated' in some undefined way. Humic acid can be broken down into two groups based on the polarity and size of the individual 'compounds'.

The smaller, more polar fraction is generally termed fulvic acid and the larger, more non-polar fraction is generally termed humic acid. Humic acids are the end product of microbial degradation of plant and animal debris and are one of the most important constituents of fertile soils.

Tannins, lignins and fulvic acids are sub classes of humic acids. They all tint the water yellow.

Tannic and humic acids may be useful for inhibiting many types of bacteria including cyano-bacteria and are fairly benign for your fish.

Another paradoxical effect of humic acids is the detoxification of heavy metals. Humic material and detritus in the aquarium also rapidly absorb and detoxify many chemicals including zinc, aluminum and copper! One might expect them to be made more, not less toxic by humic acids, but the studies seem to indicate a detoxifying effect.

Also important to know: The harder the water the more ineffective the humic acids - - - more exactly: the dissolved lime in the water produces undissolvable calcium humates. So, the higher the water hardness, the higher must be the supply of humates in order to achieve an acidifying effect. The softer the water, the less humates are needed and the better the effect. It creates a natural environment similar to that of the lakes in the tropical rainforest and some area of the Amazon River. It also induces spawning for most soft water and acid loving fishes. Too much of the ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond leaves may result in too low the water pH.
(www.siamsbestbettas.com)

Some Type of Betta Food

Mosquito larva. This is the real true betta food. Bettas eat tones of them in the rice paddies of Thailand, so it is a great choice of food. One slight tiny problem though: finding the damn things. In short, unless you have them pesky little insects around, you won’t be able to get larva to your bettas. Be careful also to not harvest from dirty water (where bacteria might be flourishing) so you don’t bring a diseases back into your tank.
Live brine shrimp. If you have a lot of money, go for it. You can buy them at your local fish store, and your bettas will love you like, forever. To use as a treat only and as I said earlier, in moderation.
Live worms. (I strongly advise against using this type of food). Brown worms, blood worms, any worms your fish store will sell you, any cultures that will produce live worms, in short bettas LOVE worms. And in this case, you should be able to easily find live worms at your local fish store. I do NOT recommend picking worms from gardens, etc.. As they may have been subjected to pesticides etc… When you feed live worms to your betta, FIRST CLEAN THE WORMS THOROUGHLY. Worms can carry tones of bacteria and parasites. I used to feed live brown worms to my bettas, and brown worms are especially yucky. Although my bettas loved eating them, I soon developed a heavy love/hate relation with the wormies: Invariably, after feeding live food for a period of time, a bacterial outbreak would sweep through my fishroom and the rate of dropsy would climb. No live food, almost never any dropsy. So I finally decided to give them up completely :((. If you like playing with fire, you can feed live worms. To wash live worms, dump them into a brine shrimp net and let COLD water run on them, rinsing them, for a good one minute. Brown worms need to be stored in a container, with only enough water to cover their bodies (no more) and placed in your refrigerator. You should open the container daily and rinse the worms, whether you intend to use them or not. If you cannot do all the above, then don’t bother with live brown worms, because they will be so unsanitary they will IMMEDIATELY give your fish diseases. Instead go for “once live but now dead” food (see below). Do not feed only live worms to your bettas, it is too rich and needs to be balanced with other foods. This is however a great food to condition your bettas for breeding. Too bad it is so contaminated... (sigh...). You might have luck with cultures that you can grow yourself, hence keeping them clean and free of bacteria. I have had the BEST of luck with my microworms cultures, but only the small fry under 40 days of age will eat them :(((. Larger worms are hard to produce in large enough quantities and usually demands a larger set-up (eats lots of space) and some also smell horrible (on a BIG scale!).
Frozen live food. This is one of the “once live but now dead” food that bettas will eat. It is more expensive, but cleaner and less yucky to manipulate then live food. Freeze it and it will keep for a long time (unlike live food). Unfreeze small portion and feed them to your bettas. One warning though, I believe there is a correlation between frozen foods and parasites, especially ich. Therefore, if you are feeding frozen food, remember to add AQUARISOL to your water to prevent ich. Also if anyone tells you that freezing the worms kills all the germs, you have my permission to slap them around a little bit, maybe it will bring them back to their senses, and to reality. LOL. Although all bacteria is not killed by the freezing process, it does get rid of most, making frozen food my favorite betta food and now a day the only food I allow in my fishroom.
Freeze dried live food. This is another one of the “once live but now dead” food that bettas will eat. I highly recommend it, because unlike the above live foods, it is sterile and will not bring any diseases or parasites into your tanks. You will mainly find two types: Freeze dried bloodworms and freeze dried brine shrimp. Bettas are especially fund of the later, while they sometimes eat the first reluctantly. I feed both to my babies. If you have many bettas, you might consider buying freeze dried food in bulk, it is otherwise pretty expensive. If you are prone to allergies, experiment with this food, I have found that myself and other breeders have a reaction to it (sneezing, temporary asthma, etc…). I use it anyways (aaAAAAA tchA!) Be careful to not feed any freeze dried food that is hard (over cooked if I may say) it will cause internal damage to your bettas. Any little hard piece should be tossed pronto.
Betta bites (and other betta pellets). There are a few different brands of betta food out there, food that were specifically designed for bettas. Most breeders don’t bother with them, because they are expensive and too generic. We prefer to have more control over the protein intake of our fish. But if you are just keeping a few bettas as pets, this is not a bad option, as long as you alternate with something else every now and then. Betta pellets are easy, just throw a few in your jar and you are done :). Bettas might not want to eat pellets if they have had a chance to taste yummy foods such as brine shrimp ;) though!!

How much to feed. everybody always think they have to feed their bettas until they explode, and that bettas will get big and strong that way. More than likely what will happen is that the bettas will not eat all the food, the uneaten food will rot in the jars/tanks, polluting the water and bacteria will promptly flourish in such an environment. In turns, the bacteria will attack the bettas, which will become sick. Dont be over feed as much as your betta can eat in 2 mn, and no more. Try to achieve a softly rounded belly. Your betta should not look pregnant :P. On the other hand, If your betta’s belly looks “hollow” or too flat, then you are either not feeding him enough, or he has a bacterial infection causing him to waste away.

Do you know?
Bettas are funny, because when you feed them something they don’t like, they have that look (yeah, you know, THAT one) on their faces, kinda like saying:

“You expect me to eat “that” ????”. They can be real snobs. However, if you give them something they love then it is the “SLURP GROM GLOUPS SLURP CRONCH CRONCH” they just gobble everything up with such enthusiasm and will continue doing so until they turn into little ballons. I often tenderly refer to them as my “little finned piglets” :)).

How often to feed. I recommend feeding your adult bettas once a day and your fries twice a day. If you really have nothing better to do, then you could also feed your adults twice a day, but cut the quantity of feed in half. You don’t want obese bettas, now, do you? :))
How much to feed. People think they have to feed their bettas until they explode, and that bettas will get big and strong that way. More than likely what will happen is that the bettas will not eat all the food, the uneaten food will rot in the jars/tanks, polluting the water and bacteria will promptly flourish in such an environment. In turns, the bacteria will attack the bettas, which will become sick. So rule number one in betta feeding is DON’T OVERFEED!!! Feed as much as your betta can eat in 2 mn, and no more. Try to achieve a softly rounded belly. Your betta should not look pregnant :P. On the other hand, If your betta’s belly looks “hollow” or too flat, then you are either not feeding him enough, or he has a bacterial infection causing him to waste away (or internal parasites).

Overfeeding can cause serious problem. Double Tail bettas will have swimbladder problem if you over feed them. They will start floating and may take up to several weeks to recover! So with DTs, it is even more important to not overdo it when it comes to food. Also when feeding live food, especially live brine shrimp, you must be aware that bettas will not stop eating until all the live food has been gobbled up. Twice I lost bettas that way. I kid you not. You will find them dead the next day. So only feed reasonable amounts of live food to your bettas, because in your fishroom, you are the only one with any ability to refrain things from getting out of hands. Your bettas can't and won't. They'll eat themselves to death. Literally. Wise buffalo has spoken.

Skip a day. It is a good idea to not feed your betta one day a week. Let his digestive system rest, let him clean himself out a bit. This does not mean that you should feed your betta whenever you remember, and that it is OK to feed him on and off and skip several days. You should feed him daily, and then skip one day every week.
Remove uneaten food: so it won’t rot and pollute your betta’s water. Some foods foul the water more than others. Uneaten food = food for bacteria = bacteria party/orgy= lots of bacteria joining the fun= bacteria then moving on to betta's body and latching on to it like leeches= sick betta= dead betta=depressed betta breeder. Hence I can simplify the equation by saying that uneaten food = you no happy

How long can a betta live without eating? I am not sure exactly how many days, but what I do know is that they can survive without food for a long time. I had a sick betta who ate a half a live worm once a week and lasted three month that way. I know that bagged bettas have been reported to have survived in their sealed bags up to three weeks. So I guess, what I am trying to say is, if you are leaving on a week-end trip and won’t be home to feed your betta for 3 days, don’t sweat it. He won’t starve or anything :). Again that does not mean that you should not feed your bettas with punctuality.