Sunday, May 31, 2009

Koi and H2o

by. Mike Snaden

The purpose of this article is to offer some explanation for some of the current misconceptions about water parameters pertaining to the term General Hardness or GH. It is unfortunate that a lot of UK koi hobbyists tend to take general aquaculture knowledge, and apply it directly to Nishikigoi. In so much as what is good for intensive aquaculture rearing techniques for food
fishes are also good for Nishikigoi pond management.
The two aquatic cultures have entirely different objectives involved, in what they set out to
achieve for the end result. Japanese breeders and universities are constantly striving to perfect production, growth, and health aspects of Koi. It is accepted that the Japanese are true masters and have made important discoveries that link good koi health, excellent growth and superior
Hi development to many aspects of koi keeping, non more so than the subject of Water
Hardness. The hobby would benefit greatly from attempting to learn from the Japanese professional Nishikigoi industry.

It's all too common to hear some hobbyists say, Mains water in certain areas is too soft, and
should be hardened. It's understandable that Carbonate Hardness (KH) should be elevated,
but the same cannot be said for General Hardness. So the focus of this short article is to offer some explanation as to why this need not be the case in so many instances, and that indicators fromJapan suggest that Soft water should be nurtured and taken advantage of, not necessarily hardened! It is generally accepted in Japan by the Koi industry / breeders, that Koi growth is enhanced in soft water. Hi will become thicker, the shine of the skin (Tsuya) will improve,
and last but not least, the health of the koi will be stimulated and greatly enhanced, hence less problems. But in a general sense the koi hobby tends to believe that Koi are put into Japanese mud ponds because of the high mineral content and low stocking levels will make the Koi potentially grow larger at a faster rate than would otherwise be the case. Whilst there is an element of truth in this statement, it does not show the full picture, and can be interpreted
as a misunderstanding. The fact is many of Niigata's mud ponds have soil that is so dead from
lack of minerals, that only rice (or Koi) can be grown there. However, mud ponds do offer
benefits such as live insects, and plankton

KH Carbonate Hardness or Alkalinity.
Carbonate hardness is essential for the buffering effect it has on the pH of water in a closed
circuit koi pond. If a recorded pH of a given volume of water is 8 and an amount of acid is
added, it is commonly expected that the pH value should drop by the corresponding amount of acid added, if there were little or no Kh value to the water, this would be the case, but the
purpose of KH is to act as a buffer so rather than the acid added to the pond directly
influencing the Ph value, the acid is spent on the carbonate ions in the KH value and only
when the carbonate reserves of the kh value are used up will the acid directly influence
and lower the ph. Hence, if the KH value falls too low, causing the pond water pH to be
influenced too easily by everyday occurrences such as fish respiration, fish urine, waste by-products from filtration system bacteria, plants life and even acid rain, in short just about everything that is considered normal in a pond environment that is capable of introducing
an acid base.
So by these examples it is easy to see why KH is so important. If a pond has a low KH, and
regular pond maintenance isn't carried out, the water will lose it's buffering capability, and
the pH will fall. At first this isn't a problem, as Koi are best suited to a pH of 7.0. But, if left unattended, the pH will fall to dangerous levels, and quickly crash the system. Resulting
in acidic water, and a pond full of either very unhappy or dead Koi, as well as a dead filter. Example: A pond in an area where the water has a typically low KH value This need not be a problem if the system falls into the following criteria, I.E. the pH runs at a steady 7.0, and
pond maintenance is done religiously, perhaps at twice-weekly intervals. The pond is not overstocked; feeding is done in constant measured amounts. There is a good working
knowledge and you understand the pond system and how it functions, plus the checking of
all water parameters are done at regular intervals, leave nothing to chance. But, if non of the
afore mentioned criteria are present it would be the authors advice to keep the pond water
KH well up and therefore well buffered, or disaster will strike! A good KH level should be somewhere in the region of 2 to 6dH. There is no point in running a higher level than 6,
as this will often result in a rise of the pH.
The Japanese consider a pH of between 6.8 and 7.4 to be ideal.

GH. General Hardness.
This is a measure of the amount of dissolved solids (mineral content), E.G. calcium, iron, aluminium, manganese, magnesium, chlorides, etc. GH has nothing directly to do with the KH buffering effects of water, also a GH measurement is no indication of the KH value as the two
are totally separate independent readings. And the only thing they share in common is the
term Hardness in the title name.
For Japanese Nishikigoi professionals, the ultimate goal is to achieve low GH values.
GH can be measured as ppm or dH, (German Degrees Hardness) Many things can effect Water hardness. A typical tap water reading in the Bristol area is around 14dH (250ppm, or parts per million).
In Japan this would be considered high! However many more things can effect and raise the
GH reading of a typical koi pond. Stocking levels, feeding levels, and chemicals will raise
This is one of the primary reasons that Koi are grown-on in mud ponds. Water in a typical Japanese Mud pond, is generally between 35 and 85 ppm TDS. The stocking rates employed
with most mud ponds are kept low so that the daily feeding doesn't raise the water hardness.
It is thought by many, the main reason koi kept in Japanese mud ponds grow very quickly. Concrete Koi ponds in Japan are often overstocked, and the water is more likely to be in the region of 150 ppm TDS. This is the one of the main reasons many Japanese hobbyists put
their best Koi back into mud ponds each year, they can then grow in soft water, as opposed
to having their growth stunted with the harder water of a conventional Koi pond, Plankton and micro organisms are another reason. TDS. Total Dissolved Solids.
A TDS reading basically represents a combination of KH, GH, and any other dissolved solids.

The readings below have been taken using a Japanese TDS meter. This meter is sold in Japan
as a 'Water quality instrument'. From the TDS reading given below, we can obviously assume
that a TDS reading of lets say 80ppm, that the KH might be for arguements sake 2dH (36ppm), and hence the GH can therefore be a maximum of 2.45dH (44ppm).
This is just an example to help you understand that in a given TDS reading, a GH and KH in
total when combined, can't exceed the TDS reading, except when allowing for the innacuracy of the test.
The following are pond water statistics compiled over the past three years.

History of Koi

The original Koi were cultivated as food fish by Chinese rice farmers in the 17th century. When brought to the Niigata Prefecture, Japan’s premier rice-growing region, rice farmers there continued to keep Koi as a food source, especially during winter. But somewhere between the 1820s and 1830s, they began to notice that some Koi had amazing colors and markings on their bodies. They then began to breed some of the carp for aesthetic appeal. Some were brought to ponds near the farmer’s houses to make them easier to grow. This could possibly be the beginnings of the Koi as a form of pond decoration.

Although Koi is simply a carp, modern specimens are products of selective breeding over many generations. Koi that exhibited desirable colors, patterns and body shapes were chosen and paired with other top quality Koi to produce better ones. Breeders have toiled over centuries on how to eliminate dullness from the basic Koi variety. These attempts to modify the external properties of Koi have, in a way, affected their physiology; but inside they are basically still the same carp, with similar traits as that of their hardier ancestors.

The basic colors of the Koi fish are red, yellow and white, but as the fish were bred with other types of carp and other Goldfish, the end results is a mix of colors. Koi varieties are constantly changing--being researched and developed, bred and improved, and more more variations are becoming available. Some are "one-time hits" never to be seen again, others become "fixed" and become quality bloodlines, and still others are yet to be dreamed of.

The history of Koi is a colorful one, marked by success and failure along the way. Breeders could not always obtain the end results they were hoping for. However, as with any objects of beauty, enthusiasts will always find a way to bring out the best quality in them, no matter how long it takes.

Saturday, May 30, 2009

3 Step Arowana care

Arowana is not a difficult fish to keep. After all, it has survived throught millions of years until man came into its way. All you need is to spend one to two hours p

er week taking care of it and you will have years of enjoyment watching this beautiful fossil dragon swimming in your aquarium.

About Arowanas

Arowanas, which may also be referred to as aruanas or arwanas or “water monkeys”, are large freshwater fish. These bony fish are specially adapted to be top water predators. The term bony refers to the structure of their head. Sometimes these fish are called “bony tongues.” This nickname is derived from the bony structure affixed to the lower portion of their jaw structure. This structure is actually a toothed bone or a “tongue” that can be used to compress prey against the roof of its mouth, which is lined with teeth. Arowanas breath by sucking air into their swim bladder. This is lined with a lung like tissue that allows them to absorb oxygen.

Arowanas are carnivorous. The location of their mouth allows them to be specialized at feeding on surface prey. In South America arowanas have been recorded to leap almost 2 meters. That’s more than 6 feet. These specialized fish prey on insects and birds that rest on overhanging trees. This is where the nickname “water monkeys” comes from. In other parts of the world it is though that arowanas may prey on small birds and bats flying close to the water. In captivity arowanas can grow up to 3-4 feed or around 48 inches.

The arowana is unique because of the extensive care which they provide their young. In many cases it is rare to see parents of other species protecting their young after their eggs are laid. Some arowanas build nests to protect their young while others are mouth brooders. These fish can hold large amounts of eggs inside their mouths. What a great form of protection! As the eggs mature the small fish emerge with the yoke sac still attached. As they age the small fish will being to venture outside the parents mouth, before leaving permanently.

Fully grown arowanas can easily attain 2 feet in length. Arowanas will reach their full length in about two years.

Arowanas are highly regarded by many Asian cultures to be lucky. This comes from their unique appearance. Asians cultures regard them as under water dragons, as they display many traits of the Chinese Dragon. These “Dragon Fish” are thought to bring good luck to their owner.

(Nick Johnson)

Friday, May 22, 2009

Tank Setting For Guppy

I got this tips from

This process of starting the aquarium is often referred to as “cycling”, which is the introduction into an aquarium of various types of bacteria which utilize the ammonia and nitrite (both toxic to fish) produced by fish waste. This process is accomplished by reducing ammonia and nitrite to nitrate, which is not toxic to fish. This process (cycling) takes an average of 30 days after the introduction of the fish. It can take as little as 21 days, or as long as 60 days without any apparent reason for the differences. There are live bacterial cultures on the market, which can help “cycle” an aquarium faster. These products do work when the bacterial cultures are viable, but fish should still be added very slowly. The following steps are recommendations on how to start a new aquarium while minimizing the hassles and problems:
In the water section there is a sticky on cycling,so you can decide what type of cycling you want to do.
Decide on the size and type of aquarium you want to have.

Decide on the type of filtration you’re going to use. You can choose from under-gravel filters, hang-on-the-back filters, canister filters, overflow filters, or some combinations of these types of filtration. Ask your pet store associate to help you decide which type of filtration is most appropriate for your aquarium.

Set up the aquarium with all of the equipment and add the water. This will include rinsing the gravel, installing the filtration, and setting the heater to the appropriate temperature. Goldfish and other cold-water fish do well at room temperature, while tropical fish need temperatures around 74-80°F depending on the type of fish.

Run the aquarium for 2-4 days,7 being better before adding any fish.

Use starter fish to begin the “cycling” process. Some excellent starter fish include danios, black tetras, and white clouds. Some other recommendations could include platies, other tetras, or some barbs. Do not use too many fish during this “cycling” process. Invariably beginners ask if it’s all right to start with angelfish, catfish, plecostomus, or other inappropriate fish. Resist the temptation to do this, and you will save yourself a lot of grief and disappointment during the first few months of operation.

When you get your starter fish home, float the bag in the aquarium for 15-20 minutes to equalize the water temperature. This is very important, as fish are very sensitive to temperature changes. After equalizing the temperature, you can add about ¼ cup of water to the bag every 15 minutes for 1-2 hours. The fish can then be released into the aquarium. If at all possible, net the fish out of the bag into the aquarium, rather than dumping the water from the bag into your tank.

Be very cautious when feeding your fish, especially until the “cycling” is complete. Overfeeding is the most common mistake made with new aquariums. A fish’s stomach is probably about the size of its eye, so feed very sparingly. Your fish should eat everything you feed them within 3 minutes. If not, you probably fed too much. Just reduce the amount the next time you feed. Fish only need to be fed once a day.

After about 14 days, you can bring in a water sample to be tested for ammonia and nitrite. This will tell whether the tank has begun “cycling”. It can also tell you when it’s safe to start adding more fish. It is not a good idea to introduce additional fish once the aquarium has started to “cycle”. The ammonia and nitrite levels will typically rise to toxic levels during this process. Because you started with hardy fish, they will often survive these toxic levels. Because the increase happens so slowly, they are able to adapt with no adverse effects. To introduce new fish during this process can be very stressful to the new fish, since they haven’t had time to slowly acclimate to the elevated levels of ammonia and nitrite. Unfortunately, they often don’t survive this trauma.

Once the test on your aquarium water determines that your tank is safe, you can begin adding additional fish. Your pet store associate can help you determine which fish are compatible in terms of size and temperament for your aquarium. Add new fish in stages. It’s not a good idea to add a lot of new fish all at one time.1 or 2 fish then wait for 2 weeks then 1 or 2 fish each week after that test your water the same day after about 6 hrs

Do not be disturbed if your aquarium becomes cloudy of hazy during the first several months of operation. This is normal, and usually disappears naturally after 2-3 months.

Routine tank maintenance should begin after the “cycling” process has been successful. Water changes of 20-25% should be performed every week. Fish do not respond well to significant chemical changes in their water. They do much better with small water changes done more frequently, than with massive water changes done infrequently. Adding water to the aquarium to replace water that has evaporated is not a water change. Again, be very sensitive to water temperature when doing water changes.

Genes marked with a cobra skin color, such as snakes (snake skin) on the entire body of the male guppy color combination of black, white or yellow. Huge cobra guppy figured that because this is the pattern since the first time can be identified. Changes in the genes found in the common cobra species is known as lace. Gen lace pattern has a more subtle and complex. Because it's easy to variettes, cobra style can be found also in the guppy females.

Naming refers to the color blue or dark gray metallic body in the male guppy. Most species are found Metalik Cobra which is a combination of genes and genes metalik cobra. This type of chest and to have a metallic colored body and the back of the cobra figured.

Blue Japan
Blue is the type of Japan came from the wild guppy populations in Japan. Characteristics of this type is the sky blue dipinggang male guppy, because the influence of other genes can vary the color from purple to Turquoise. Latest developments of the type Japan Lazuli Blue is the color generally have a base of the head and tail blue.

Pink White
Characteristics of this guppy is a type of white dipangkal pink tails. This newly identified source of unknown origin. Warnanya bervariasi dari pink ke putih. Variants that have the initial color tinge with red tails, but this time more banyka found with bright solid colors such as blue and white.

Gen tuxedo black color to give ditubuh the back (waist) as black and blue, but its level of coverage vary. Generally cover the back half of guppy. Gen addition to the influence of tuxedo coloring, also give the influence on the size of the fin. Tuxedo tend to have a larger fin.

Gen mozaic pattern shows wavy lines or patterns on the fin guppy. Pattern characteristics in the blue base of tail and aft to the tail fin. The pattern is always have a stack of blue uniform with a yellow or dark blue with red. To maintain the genes mozaic not easy, he must disilangkan other genes with genes that produce the mozaic figured beautiful.

Grass is the development of mozaic. Gen grass is shade from the tail fin and back fin guppy in the form noktah-noktah a knife or fine point black or dark blue. Noktah the form of grass that gives the color difference, grass finely figured knife appears on the grass while the red dots on the pattern noktah blue grass. However, at this time both red and blue grass gress have a smooth complexion noktah point. In the early occurrence of the grass color back fin transparant so often called the glass grass

Leopard characterized with thick noktah spread on random siripnya dark blue to black. Chance of genes is the development of varieties of mozaic but also can be found on the type of cobra silangan with the type of guppy color plain. When this type is not too much less because so favored by the hobbies

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Guppy Pict

Disease of Guppy Fish

The common disease of guppy is fungi. It must be understood fungus grows in a way that is different from the bacteria. Mushroom spore and grow with the growth with a certain condition.
They have developed a particular form of spore cycle and then changes to organisms called miselium.Jamur this can breed very quickly, shaped like a yarn / thread and form networks, such as a thin layer. While the bacteria that usually attacks the guppy is Mycobacterium piscium, also some other cause.
Needs to make to the effective treatment must make an accurate diagnosis, so that they can overcome the disease arise. Disease that attacks the common guppy fish is:

The characteristics of the fish fell ill is The speck-The speck of white on the fish skin. Teteskan alcohol treatment metapen in place as much as 2 drops in one gallon of water / 4 1.12) liters of water. The next step give the salt and leave some saat.Berikan hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria attached to the fishing nets for 15 to 30 seconds. Or can also be used methyline malachite green or blue or acriflavin as disinfektan.
How the treatment of fish bacterial infection should be given the additional space before the treat.

Disease or swelling Bloat
Fish appear restless, the body appear larger because kembung. This is because fish gut inflammation.
Isolation of infected fish, and enter into one gallon of water that has been dibubuhi salt 2 spoons full English. Leave it for 4 or 6 hours, then add water for 12 hours. Once cured can be returned to the place of origin.

Mouth fungus
The affected fish mouth fungus easily seen from the color white which is located in front of the mouth. White mushroom is a very large colony attached to the fish's mouth, so close to the mouth of the fish can not breathe and eat and can cause fish to die.
Aureomycin treatment using 25 mg to 1 gallon of water add 1 drops of iodine and metopen 2 drops.

Gill disease
The affected fish gill inflammation usually caused by a viral organism. The disease is on the gill opening, lazy and always eat on the surface of water.
The disease is caused by several bacteria and fungi and the most difficult to diatasi.Ciri fish die if this insangnya look ruddy and decompose more quickly from the body.
Some of the ways that have been successful is to give metapen mercurochrome soaked some time together and do a treatment with salt water and provide a more large and broad.

The characteristics of the fish exposed to stomach inflammation, among other fish appear to swim to the base difficult. How to give them 1 tsp each salt English 1 / 2 liters of water, and rendam fish for 3 to 4 hours, then move to fish in areas where the height of water 3 times higher bodies of fish. There are still some common diseases that have been known, for example, head lice or needle.

Guppy Fish Finder

Why called Guppy fish ???

This fish species is actually found in 1856 by German scientist named Wilhelm Peters. However, in the year 1866, again found guppy color with a more varied more than that found previously, namely by Robert John Lechmere Guppy

Robert John Lechmere Guppy discovered this tiny fish in Trinidad in 1866, and the fish was named Girardinus guppii in his honour by Albert C. L. G. Gunther later that year. However, the fish had previously been described in America. Although Girardinus guppii is now considered a junior synonym of Poecilia reticulata, the common name "guppy" still remains. (In Trinidad and Tobago, the common name is "crayfish".) Over time guppies have been given a variety of taxonomic names, although Poecilia reticulata is the name currently considered to be valid.

However, the fish had previously been described by Wilhelm Peters in 1859 on material collected from South America. Although Girardinus guppii is now considered a junior synonym of Poecilia reticulata, the common name "guppy" still remains. Over time guppies have been given a variety of taxonomic names, although Poecilia reticulata is the name currently considered to be valid.

Guppies are native to Barbados, Brazil, Guyana, Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago, the US Virgin Islands, Venezuela.

However, guppies have been introduced to many different countries on all continents, except Antarctica. Sometimes this has occurred accidentally, but most often as a means of mosquito control, the hope being that the guppies would eat the mosquito larvae slowing down the spread of malaria. In many cases, these guppies have had a negative impact on native fish.

Guppy originally living in the brackish swamp water. Fish breeding is a way progenitive spawning so easily classified.
The Guppy fish is probably the most popular aquarium fish species in the world, and is also known as one of the cheapest fish in shops even though some forms may be expensive. Small, beautiful, peaceful, lively, curious and hardy, there are many colourful variations that can be collected and easily bred. The Guppy fish is one of the best choices for beginners, especially children. However, like every fish kept in captivity, these fishes also require proper care and conditions.

Male parent has a bright color, a svelte body, the fin spine is longer, has gondopodium (a bulge in the back of the aft fin stomach) which is a modified form of fin anal fin long.
To have female body fat, less bright colors, small back fin, fin fin the form of stomach halus. beside color, form the basic tail guppy fish also vary.
Guppy divided based on the form of a wide tail (tail width), sword tail (long tail), tail and short (short tails). Each variety has 4 kinds of tails. Variety is the latest Ribbon / Swallow.
This is a new variety of different cross mutation causing genes is the result of cross-marrying of different types of this fish.
Guppy breeding with the litter. Guppy a new child is born can swim well. This occurs because the process of internal fertilization guppy that is happening at the time of marriage gondopodium organ that is located on the anal fin is inserted into the female organ of eggs.
Guppy male will chase the female marries ready. Each time the marriage can be a time of birth 3.
Time of birth at around 3 weeks and a female can produce 60 fry. With understand the process of conception until the birth of guppy fish then need to use a method that marriage guppy can easily be controlled and regulated in accordance with our wishes.
Weakness of cultivation guppy inaccuracy is mainly using a system that marries mass. Techniques used in producing a superior strain guppy in with the F4 or also called the system online.
To find a good guppy usually be found with the female form that has a good head. While searching for the male is usually bright colors are also the most dominant.
For guppy Ribbon, Ribbon is very dominant female, whereas males remain male for normal, so to get a male guppy Ribbon still needed a good normal malel.

Monday, May 18, 2009

This information from IWProductions (

Before you panic and start dousing the tank with every chemical you can find, let's take a look to make sure there's something wrong.

Here are some characteristics to look for in a healthy betta:
-High energy. Most bettas are active much of the time. They do take breaks, but will move around quite a bit, especially if someone comes near them.
-Big appetite. Bettas are big eaters. If you keep feeding them, they'll likely keep eating. Not that you should overfeed your betta, but their appetite is a good barometer to their health and mode.
-A healthy, clean looking body. Bettas have a fairly smooth and uniform body. Their scales should look neat and orderly and their fins should be whole and spread out.
-A bright, brilliant color. This is especially important for male bettas. They should be colorful. Bettas that are dull and drab or look "washed out" may not be doing well.
-Healthy, normal looking eyes or gills. The betta's eyes should be uniform and proportional and the gills should look healthy and smooth. The gills should close well against the betta's side.

Here are some characteristics to look out for:

-Low energy. A betta that sits at the bottom or in a top corner of the tank and mopes around might not be doing well. If this behavior persists then there may be something going on.
-Not eating. Bettas like to eat, so be alert for changes in appetite. If your betta goes on a hunger fast or ignores food then probably it's ill.
-Any strange marks on the body. If your betta's scales are ruffled up, you see sores, or there are any strange growths on its fins or body then that's a pretty clear sign that it's sick.
-Losing color. A betta that's dull and has lost its luster is not doing well. Either something is going on with the betta or its food.
-Look out for swollen gills or protruding eyes. If a betta has a gill disorder or one eye starts bulging that's a sign of some serious and common problems.

If a betta has a gill disorder or one eye starts bulging that's a sign of some serious and common problems.

Keeping an eye out for any changes in your betta's appearance, behavior, or mood and you're a long way towards maintaining a happy and healthy fish. At the first sign of these symptoms it's best to make a water change and isolate the betta.

Betta & Snails

Most Snails are “Hermaphrodites”. Which means they are both male and female. And they can reproduce by themselves. They don’t need a mate. Although, they can reproduce with mates as well. Snails are used most often in tanks because of their ability to eat uneaten food and all other waste. But some of them can create extra waste as well. Be careful if you put snails in your betta fish tank, as the population can easily get out of control.

Do you know?
The Crowntail was founded 1997 in West Jakarta, Slipi, Indonesia, and the Indonesian breeder named Achmad Yusuf (Iyus), who called it 'cupang serit' in Indonesian. When Henri Gunawan showed this fish in one of the IBC shows, he named it CROWNTAIL.

Here the tail rays extend beyond the tail edge, producing a crown-like appearance (sometimes referred to as "Combtail"). How much the rays may extend depends on the genetic makeup of the fish. The crowntail trait can be found in bettas of any tail type and shape. For instance it can be seen in VT, D, SD, HM (CTHM = half-sun) and DT. The crowntail gene is recessive (or actually intermediar), but singletail carriers most of the time already show more or less extended rays beyond the tail edge.

Most of the tropical fishes that lives in the rivers and lakes, their natural and best environment is Black Water. Black water have a distinctive brownish tea like colour and contain many dissolved organic materials.

It was first noticed that fishes living around the water where the ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond trees grew are found much more vibrant, beautiful and healthy. Thus started the practice of putting in ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond leaves into aquariums to try and achieve the same condition as those found in their natural environment.

Ketapang Leaves, is aimed for water reconditioning based on betta's environment

The ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond tree is a big 'pagoda-shaped' tree with distinctly tiered branching. The origin of the tree is in Malaysia and Thailand. A noted pecularity of this species is the tendency for its leaves to turn bright red and fall - a rarity in the tropics where most trees remain evergreen throughout the year. The bark, fruit and leaves of the tree have traditionally been used to treat various ailments ranging from skin disease, dysentery, headaches and colic in children. Research has identified properties which could be used in treating hypertension.

Ketapang/Huu Kwang (TERMINALIA CATAPPA, or commonly called tropical almond, badamier, Java almond, amandier de Cayenne, wild almond, Indian almond, myrobalan, Malabar almond, Singapore almond, Huu kwang, Sea almond, kobateishi) tree is known to produce a poison in its leaves and sap to defend against insect parasites. When the dried leaves falls into the river, a strong brown dye is given off. The dye is full of organic acids like humic and tannins.

So the dried Ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond leaves actually release organic acids like humic and tannins which lowers the pH of the water, absorbs harmful chemicals and help create a soothing and calm environment for the fish.

What is Humic Acid? Is it a mixture of several organic acids? Humic acids are a complex mixture of partially "decomposed" and otherwise transformed organic materials. The freshwater humic acids can come from a variety of sources, most of which are on land (decomposing terrestrial vegetation.) These substances wash into lakes and rivers, undergoing further transformations along the way, and ultimately into the ocean.

Humic acid contains Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in varying amounts. It also contains metals such as Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn etc. which can be 'chelated' in some undefined way. Humic acid can be broken down into two groups based on the polarity and size of the individual 'compounds'.

The smaller, more polar fraction is generally termed fulvic acid and the larger, more non-polar fraction is generally termed humic acid. Humic acids are the end product of microbial degradation of plant and animal debris and are one of the most important constituents of fertile soils.

Tannins, lignins and fulvic acids are sub classes of humic acids. They all tint the water yellow.

Tannic and humic acids may be useful for inhibiting many types of bacteria including cyano-bacteria and are fairly benign for your fish.

Another paradoxical effect of humic acids is the detoxification of heavy metals. Humic material and detritus in the aquarium also rapidly absorb and detoxify many chemicals including zinc, aluminum and copper! One might expect them to be made more, not less toxic by humic acids, but the studies seem to indicate a detoxifying effect.

Also important to know: The harder the water the more ineffective the humic acids - - - more exactly: the dissolved lime in the water produces undissolvable calcium humates. So, the higher the water hardness, the higher must be the supply of humates in order to achieve an acidifying effect. The softer the water, the less humates are needed and the better the effect. It creates a natural environment similar to that of the lakes in the tropical rainforest and some area of the Amazon River. It also induces spawning for most soft water and acid loving fishes. Too much of the ketapang/Huu Kwang/Indian Almond leaves may result in too low the water pH.

Some Type of Betta Food

Mosquito larva. This is the real true betta food. Bettas eat tones of them in the rice paddies of Thailand, so it is a great choice of food. One slight tiny problem though: finding the damn things. In short, unless you have them pesky little insects around, you won’t be able to get larva to your bettas. Be careful also to not harvest from dirty water (where bacteria might be flourishing) so you don’t bring a diseases back into your tank.
Live brine shrimp. If you have a lot of money, go for it. You can buy them at your local fish store, and your bettas will love you like, forever. To use as a treat only and as I said earlier, in moderation.
Live worms. (I strongly advise against using this type of food). Brown worms, blood worms, any worms your fish store will sell you, any cultures that will produce live worms, in short bettas LOVE worms. And in this case, you should be able to easily find live worms at your local fish store. I do NOT recommend picking worms from gardens, etc.. As they may have been subjected to pesticides etc… When you feed live worms to your betta, FIRST CLEAN THE WORMS THOROUGHLY. Worms can carry tones of bacteria and parasites. I used to feed live brown worms to my bettas, and brown worms are especially yucky. Although my bettas loved eating them, I soon developed a heavy love/hate relation with the wormies: Invariably, after feeding live food for a period of time, a bacterial outbreak would sweep through my fishroom and the rate of dropsy would climb. No live food, almost never any dropsy. So I finally decided to give them up completely :((. If you like playing with fire, you can feed live worms. To wash live worms, dump them into a brine shrimp net and let COLD water run on them, rinsing them, for a good one minute. Brown worms need to be stored in a container, with only enough water to cover their bodies (no more) and placed in your refrigerator. You should open the container daily and rinse the worms, whether you intend to use them or not. If you cannot do all the above, then don’t bother with live brown worms, because they will be so unsanitary they will IMMEDIATELY give your fish diseases. Instead go for “once live but now dead” food (see below). Do not feed only live worms to your bettas, it is too rich and needs to be balanced with other foods. This is however a great food to condition your bettas for breeding. Too bad it is so contaminated... (sigh...). You might have luck with cultures that you can grow yourself, hence keeping them clean and free of bacteria. I have had the BEST of luck with my microworms cultures, but only the small fry under 40 days of age will eat them :(((. Larger worms are hard to produce in large enough quantities and usually demands a larger set-up (eats lots of space) and some also smell horrible (on a BIG scale!).
Frozen live food. This is one of the “once live but now dead” food that bettas will eat. It is more expensive, but cleaner and less yucky to manipulate then live food. Freeze it and it will keep for a long time (unlike live food). Unfreeze small portion and feed them to your bettas. One warning though, I believe there is a correlation between frozen foods and parasites, especially ich. Therefore, if you are feeding frozen food, remember to add AQUARISOL to your water to prevent ich. Also if anyone tells you that freezing the worms kills all the germs, you have my permission to slap them around a little bit, maybe it will bring them back to their senses, and to reality. LOL. Although all bacteria is not killed by the freezing process, it does get rid of most, making frozen food my favorite betta food and now a day the only food I allow in my fishroom.
Freeze dried live food. This is another one of the “once live but now dead” food that bettas will eat. I highly recommend it, because unlike the above live foods, it is sterile and will not bring any diseases or parasites into your tanks. You will mainly find two types: Freeze dried bloodworms and freeze dried brine shrimp. Bettas are especially fund of the later, while they sometimes eat the first reluctantly. I feed both to my babies. If you have many bettas, you might consider buying freeze dried food in bulk, it is otherwise pretty expensive. If you are prone to allergies, experiment with this food, I have found that myself and other breeders have a reaction to it (sneezing, temporary asthma, etc…). I use it anyways (aaAAAAA tchA!) Be careful to not feed any freeze dried food that is hard (over cooked if I may say) it will cause internal damage to your bettas. Any little hard piece should be tossed pronto.
Betta bites (and other betta pellets). There are a few different brands of betta food out there, food that were specifically designed for bettas. Most breeders don’t bother with them, because they are expensive and too generic. We prefer to have more control over the protein intake of our fish. But if you are just keeping a few bettas as pets, this is not a bad option, as long as you alternate with something else every now and then. Betta pellets are easy, just throw a few in your jar and you are done :). Bettas might not want to eat pellets if they have had a chance to taste yummy foods such as brine shrimp ;) though!!

How much to feed. everybody always think they have to feed their bettas until they explode, and that bettas will get big and strong that way. More than likely what will happen is that the bettas will not eat all the food, the uneaten food will rot in the jars/tanks, polluting the water and bacteria will promptly flourish in such an environment. In turns, the bacteria will attack the bettas, which will become sick. Dont be over feed as much as your betta can eat in 2 mn, and no more. Try to achieve a softly rounded belly. Your betta should not look pregnant :P. On the other hand, If your betta’s belly looks “hollow” or too flat, then you are either not feeding him enough, or he has a bacterial infection causing him to waste away.

Do you know?
Bettas are funny, because when you feed them something they don’t like, they have that look (yeah, you know, THAT one) on their faces, kinda like saying:

“You expect me to eat “that” ????”. They can be real snobs. However, if you give them something they love then it is the “SLURP GROM GLOUPS SLURP CRONCH CRONCH” they just gobble everything up with such enthusiasm and will continue doing so until they turn into little ballons. I often tenderly refer to them as my “little finned piglets” :)).

How often to feed. I recommend feeding your adult bettas once a day and your fries twice a day. If you really have nothing better to do, then you could also feed your adults twice a day, but cut the quantity of feed in half. You don’t want obese bettas, now, do you? :))
How much to feed. People think they have to feed their bettas until they explode, and that bettas will get big and strong that way. More than likely what will happen is that the bettas will not eat all the food, the uneaten food will rot in the jars/tanks, polluting the water and bacteria will promptly flourish in such an environment. In turns, the bacteria will attack the bettas, which will become sick. So rule number one in betta feeding is DON’T OVERFEED!!! Feed as much as your betta can eat in 2 mn, and no more. Try to achieve a softly rounded belly. Your betta should not look pregnant :P. On the other hand, If your betta’s belly looks “hollow” or too flat, then you are either not feeding him enough, or he has a bacterial infection causing him to waste away (or internal parasites).

Overfeeding can cause serious problem. Double Tail bettas will have swimbladder problem if you over feed them. They will start floating and may take up to several weeks to recover! So with DTs, it is even more important to not overdo it when it comes to food. Also when feeding live food, especially live brine shrimp, you must be aware that bettas will not stop eating until all the live food has been gobbled up. Twice I lost bettas that way. I kid you not. You will find them dead the next day. So only feed reasonable amounts of live food to your bettas, because in your fishroom, you are the only one with any ability to refrain things from getting out of hands. Your bettas can't and won't. They'll eat themselves to death. Literally. Wise buffalo has spoken.

Skip a day. It is a good idea to not feed your betta one day a week. Let his digestive system rest, let him clean himself out a bit. This does not mean that you should feed your betta whenever you remember, and that it is OK to feed him on and off and skip several days. You should feed him daily, and then skip one day every week.
Remove uneaten food: so it won’t rot and pollute your betta’s water. Some foods foul the water more than others. Uneaten food = food for bacteria = bacteria party/orgy= lots of bacteria joining the fun= bacteria then moving on to betta's body and latching on to it like leeches= sick betta= dead betta=depressed betta breeder. Hence I can simplify the equation by saying that uneaten food = you no happy

How long can a betta live without eating? I am not sure exactly how many days, but what I do know is that they can survive without food for a long time. I had a sick betta who ate a half a live worm once a week and lasted three month that way. I know that bagged bettas have been reported to have survived in their sealed bags up to three weeks. So I guess, what I am trying to say is, if you are leaving on a week-end trip and won’t be home to feed your betta for 3 days, don’t sweat it. He won’t starve or anything :). Again that does not mean that you should not feed your bettas with punctuality.

Tips Care Betta Fish #3

Your Betta will thrive in the cleanest water that you can provide for him. He does not require a filtration system, but you should change out a third of his water every three days so it stays fresh and clean and keeps your finned friend from getting bacterial or fungal infections. Aged water (water that has set out for twenty four hours) is what should be used to replace the old water.

Make sure the jar or bowl that you keep your Betta in is big enough so that he can swim around and not bump or tear his fins or scales. Also be sure there is plenty of surface area so that he can get enough oxygen.

Do not put your Betta fish with other Betta’s. They are called Siamese fighting fish because they are, in fact, fighting fish. They will tear at one another, often causing the death of at least one fish before they stop. Betta’s can be coupled with algae eaters, guppies, or corydorus catfish safely.

Use a turkey baster to clean small particles of uneaten food or debris from the bottom of the bowl or jar. Allowing this debris to sit at the bottom of the jar will cause the water to become cloudy, unsanitary, and to smell awful.

The PH of your tank should be at exactly 7.0. You can get a PH testing kit at your pet store along with solutions to minimize or increase the PH of your water.

When you clean the plants, rocks, or decorations in the bowl you should never use soap on them. It’s very hard to completely rinse all soap from these items and the soap residue can harm or even kill your Betta. Instead, use warm water and an abrasive brush to clean his things.

Keep your Betta tank, jar, or bowl covered! Your Beta will jump and you don’t want him to end up flopping on the tabletop! Keeping the water level at least two inches from the top of the tank should also cut down on this problem.

Your Betta is a meat eater and likes live foods, such as brine shrimp the best. Frozen bloodworms are also a good choice for your meat eater. Most Betta fish will happily eat the Betta pellets sold at most pet stores. For a special treat every now and again you should offer some live food! You’ll have fun watching him eat it up!

Do not decorate your Betta bowl with rocks or marbles that may cause your Betta to get stuck between or under them. Be sure that they are a flat smooth surface that provides no risk to the health of your fish.

Remember that your fish is a living, breathing responsibility. You need to feed, clean, and care for your Betta just like you would any other pet. If he’s sick take him to the vet, if he’s hungry feed him, if his home is dirty, clean it.

Tips Care Betta Fish #2

Even though Bettas do well in waters low in dissolved oxygen, that does not mean they require less oxygen than other fish. Bettas have a special respiratory organ that allows them to breath air directly from the surface. In fact they inherently must do so. In experiments where the labyrinth organ was removed, the fish died from suffocation even though the water was saturated with oxygen. For this reason, Bettas must have access to the water surface to breath air directly from the atmosphere.

Optimally the water for keeping healthy Bettas should be soft, warm, with a neutral to slightly acidic pH. Water movement should be kept to a minimum, which means that power filters and powerheads are not suitable. Bettas may be kept in a community tank as long as the water conditions are met, and if no aggressive or fin-nipping fish are present. However, only one male may be kept in each aquarium, unless they are separated by a barrier.

The use of plastic boxes that hang inside the aquarium are a suitable option for keeping more than one betta in a tank, or for keeping them in a tank with fish that might nip their fins. Females will generally not fight with each other, and may be kept in the same tank. NOTE: Selling a betta in a vase with a Peace Lily has become in vogue. However, a flower vase is not a suitable environment for the betta. For more information check the additional information links to the right.
In nature Bettas subsist almost exclusively on insects and insect larvae. They are built with an upturned mouth that is well suited to snatching any hapless insect that might fall into the water. Internally their digestive system is geared for meat, having a much shorter alimentary track than vegetarian fish. For this reason, live foods are the ideal diet for the betta, however they will adapt to eating flake foods and frozen and freeze dried foods.Brine shrimp, Daphnia, plankton, tubifex, glassworms, and beef heart, are all excellent options that may be found frozen or freeze dried. If flake food is fed, it should be supplemented with frozen and freeze-dried foods, and if possible live foods.

Tips Care Betta Fish #1

  1. Prepare home. Here are some points to consider:
    1. Choosing. In the wild, bettas inhabit Thai rice paddies. Hence, they are fitted to living in relatively shallow but spacious environments. However, you should still consider giving your betta a decent sized tank to help prolong its life, since waste can build up very quickly. Naturally, more water is better, but a 5 gallon tank is an acceptable size for your betta fish. If you wish to keep your betta with other fish or aquatic animals, then you will need a tank of at least ten gallons.
      • If you choose a larger tank you will enhance its quality of life.
    2. Decorate. One of the betta's distinct features is its ability to breathe oxygen in both the air and the water, so you will not need to supply aeration. You might decorate your betta's home with gravel/colored stones, silk plants, and a small cave-like structure to hide in. A creative home is a happy home! Remember to add a gentle filter and small heater.
      • Do not use jagged rocks or decorations for your tank, as they tear your betta's fins.
      • Be wary when buying hard plastic plants, as they can be rough on your betta's fins. A good trick is to use the 'pantyhose test': If a plastic plant will snag a pair of pantyhose when rubbed against it, then it will damage your betta's fins. Be safe and buy silk plants instead.
  2. Prepare the water. If you use water fresh from the tap, use a water conditioner before you put it in the tank, as the chlorine and chloramines can harm your betta. Older sources may suggest aging the water, letting it stand for a period of time. It is best to use a water conditioner, since aging water will remove chlorine but not chloramine and heavy metals.
  3. Fillto top cover. If your tank does not have a top cover, then fill it about 80% high. Bettas are very active fish and can jump over three inches when motivated, so this will ensure that it does not jump out of the tank.
    • If your tank does not have a top cover, you can a mesh cloth over the top to ensure that it does not jump out. It will be much happier if it has access to lots of air as it does breathe at the surface along with in the water.
  4. Temperature. Be sure that your tank is maintained at a constant temperature of 78-82 degrees. Purchasing a small heater is a good idea, since the temperature of the water is likely to be much cooler than room temperature and can fluctuate easily.
  5. Cycle your tank. This step is important to the health of your fish.
  6. Purchase your betta. There are some considerations for choosing your betta.
    1. Visit your local pet store or the vet. You should have a general understanding of what to look for before purchasing your betta.
    2. Observe the available bettas. There are a few qualities that you should look for when choosing a betta fish:
      • Color. Is the betta bright and vivid in color, or does it appear very dull and pale? Bettas come in a variety of colors, so don't be surprised by the choices available. Blues and reds (dark colors in general) are the most common.
      • Receptiveness. Does the betta respond to your movement at all? Does it appear to swim around rapidly at the sight of you, or does it merely sit at the bottom and sulk? You shouldn't repeatedly tap on the container, as you will only agitate the fish, but you should find a way to see if it pays attention to you. On the other hand, don't be afraid to buy a somewhat docile betta. Bettas will generally have many encounters with other people during the day, and may simply be taking a brief rest.
      • Overall health. Are its fins in good condition, or are they torn or otherwise damaged? Are the betta's eyes in good shape? Do you see any odd lumps (parasites) on its body? If you see anything highly out of the ordinary, you may want to consider another betta.
      • The right one. Sometimes, the fish will choose you, not the other way around. If there is one betta that you look at, set down, move on from, but are drawn back to repeatedly, it is probably the right fish for you. Even if it is not completely healthy, you should buy the fish you feel a connection to, rather than the healthiest one there. The betta will likely heal up once he is out of the tiny cup and in warm, clean water.
  7. Feeding. Your betta's diet should consist primarily of pellets. For special occasions feed frozen.
    • Be sure to clean up any extra food that your betta does not eat. Similarly, be sure to watch your betta fish to see if he spits up any food.
    • A diet high in protein yet varied is important. Flakes, live food, freeze dried, pellets, whatever works best for you, but keep it varied. If you don't keep your fish's diet varied, it may become constipated. Constipation in a betta resembles swim bladder disease in which they are unable to maintain their balance. All is not lost. Feed him a bit of a cooked, peeled pea, then no food for a day or two he will be fine.
    • Though live food may be more exciting to watch, freeze dried products still work great. They are also safer and free from potential parasites.
    • Don't overfeed your betta, no matter how hungry or cute he or she seems! Your betta's stomach is about the size of its eyeball, so keep that in mind.
  8. Clean your betta's tank.
    1. Do not remove your betta from the tank.
    2. Clean the tank. Clear up any buildups on the side(s).
    3. Replace some of the water. Don't change all of the water at once, as the abrupt shift in the environment can harm your betta. You should only change about 25%-50% of the water in the tank at a time. For the other portion, use clean water of about 78ºF. Be wary of shifting the water temperature too drastically when you reintroduce your betta to the tank, as it may affect your betta. Don't forget to add your water conditioner. You should do at least 20-30% water change once a week .

Saturday, May 16, 2009

Betta's Pict

Betta's Pict (CrownTail)

Betta's Pict

see more pict

Betta's Pict (HalfMoon) 2

Friday, May 15, 2009

Betta's Pict (HalfMoon)

Arowana Origins

Hinduism and Budhism, some kingdoms were formed in Sumatra and Java island and
ever reached their endurance with area scooping Malaysia, Mindanao island in

Under the power of
Majapahit area since the 7th till 14th century which the coming of Arabians

trader from Gujarat, India that took along Islam.

When Europeans came in the beginning of the 16th century, till in 17th
Publish Post

century which Netherlands came as the strongest power in equator land. Until
in process era of flora and fauna variety evolution, that happened in This
equator land. The ancient fish is not depleted, that was arwana (Scleropages
formosus). This fish one century ago almost not to be known, till in 1844
two german experts; Muller and Schlegel interestedby the beauty of the fish
which they met in South America. Their research found that this fish was not
known yet. Both of them gave the name Osteoglossum formosum. So, in 1932
Netherlands zoologist; Max Weber and L.F. de Beaufort changed the name
becoming Scleropages formosus. Till the last founding by a Japanese expert;
Kanazawa in 1966,that had been found many kinds of arwana. At least there
were four genus; they are Arapaima in one species (Arapaima gigas),
Osteoglossum ferreirai, then genus Scleropages in four species; they are
Scleropages formosus, s. guntheri, S. leichardti and S. jardini. The
lastgenus is Clupisudis in only one species; Cluisudis nilot.

In Indonesia, many of super red arwana (S. formosus) were found. So many of
this kind is in rivers and in lakes in Sintang, Kapuas Hulu. The rivers that
is Kapuas river branches have so many kinds of arwana, because the rivers and
the lakes have no stony and the stream is calm and not as rapid as Kapuas
river. The red arwana is harder to be fopund in it’s true habitate in Sentarum
lake, Regency of Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan province.

Till basically and known generally that arwana (Scleropages formosus) is of of
fresh water species from South East Asia. This fish has a long size. Asian
arwana generally has silver colour. Asia arwana is also called dragon fish
because often connected with dragon from Chinese Mythology. Beside in West
Kalimantan, arwana is also found in Riau and Jambi. But it’s kind is red
arwana (golden red arwana). This kind is still spcies of Scleropages formosus.
Basic colour of Sumatra arwana is golden yellow on the head and tail area.
It’s tail is red. This arwana has no red colour on the lips. But it’s
performance is’s as good as super red arwana.

The other kind of arwana in Indonesia is green arwana, that is also found
plenty in Ka;limantan. That is in Melawai river and Mensiku river. The main
nature is green colour on the tail. But this green colour often unseen because
of covered by red colour. Only in nature, green colour is more clear to see.
This arwana’s habitate is the river that has not too clean water, and
brownish. Two kinds of other arwana that also live in Indonesia, they are in
papua, but their population are’t too many. Collectors like more to hunt this
kind in Australia that has high population.

In Australia, the population of Scleropages jardini kind and Scleropages
leichardti are high. The first kind mainly exist in queensland river and
Jardini river. The nature; it’s body has red spot, abdomen part is siler
colour, whereas Scleropages leichardti is many in Fitzroy river, Mary river,
Dauson river and burnett river in Australia. This kind in Indonesia also
founding several small rivers in Papua. But because of the minimum observation
in Papua, many people predict the population of both kinds of arwana are large
enough. Whereas arwana silver and black arwana are many found in South
America, North America and several riers in Africa. In Indonesia, as the
population in Papua has no clear data by government.

While we know that Asian arwana is original species in South East Asia rivers
expecially Indonesia. There are four kinds of colour that we found on

  • Green, found in Indonesia, Vietnam, Birma, Thailand and Malaysia.
  • Gold with red tail, found in Indonesia.
  • Gold, found in Malaysia.
  • Red, found in Indonesia.

Asia arwana that registered in depleted species draft which it’s status is
depleted expecially super red arwana by IUCN in 2004. The amount of this
species is decrease caused by high level of trading because of the high price
as aquarium fish, mainly by Asian people, the follower of feng shui, whom can
pay high price for this fish. Generally arwana divided of four main kinds;
they are Asian arwana (Scleropages formosus), Australian arwana (Scleopages
jardini/leichardti), South America arwana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum/erreirai)
and African arwana. Every this group has uniqueness and also each
specification but Asia arwana is the most expensive group and it’s sales is in
international level.

While CITES (Convention on International Trade in endangered Species of wild
fauna and flora) is agreement of nations that plan rules and protection fauna
and flora species that is worried to be endangered. The history of CITES is
begun from unity if internation about preserving of nature . In 1972, an idea
was made to care to nature and flora and fauna for human being life. So “Human
Environtment Council” was formed among the united nation and made an agreement
about trading of flora and fauna which is in endangered on this earth. Till
conversion in Washinton in the next year, and as the result 72 nations agreed
and signed since the 1st July 1975.

Malaysia government with the system can apply, that two species which is in
CITES control is temoleh fish (Probarbus julleini) and kelisa/arwana fish (Scleropaes
formosus) they can made rule and apply tight control from the government.

As long as identified, there are many betta relatives know nowadays such as:

• Betta pugnax (Forest Betta),

• Betta taeniata (Banned Betta),

• Betta macrostoma (Bruney Beauty),

• Betta unimaculata (Golden Slender),

• Betta picta (Painted Betta),

• Betta anabantoides (Pearly Betta),

• Betta edithae (Betta Brederi), dan

• Betta foerschi (Purple Saphire Betta),

The Betta's classified above also called a mouthbroder
(spawning on the mouth). Meanwhile, other relatives, namely

• Betta akarensis (Sarawak Betta),

• Betta coccina (Clorat's Betta),

• Betta bellica (Standart's Betta),

• Betta tesyae (Peaceful Betta),

• Betta smaragdina (Emerald Betta),

• Betta imbelis (Slugger's Betta) and

• Betta splendens (Siamesse Fighting

then . . . species mentioned above the last is what became the idol betta lovers


This information from

Accessorizing with fish was not what the people of Siam originally had in
mind when they started collecting Bettas prior to the 1800s. Known as Siamese

Fighting Fish, the Bettas of that time were not the same elegant fish that we

see today. With much smaller fins and a dirty greenish brown hue, they were bred
for competitive fighting and not for the magnificent finnage and colors that
they are now famous for. Native to Siam (now Thailand), Indonesia, Malaysia,
Vietnam and parts of China, these fish became accustomed to water temperatures
that were often above 80 degrees.

For the children of Malaya, in southern China, collecting these Siamese

fighting fish was a favorite pastime. Able to catch 50 fish in an hour, from the
paddy fields, these children would conduct fish fights in order to determine who
the village champion was. Usually, it was the biggest fish that they had. Once
the wounds healed on the prize-winning fish, he would go into competition again

against a new opponent. This pastime diminished significantly when agricultural
chemicals and mechanized plowing were introduced for the harvesting of the paddy
fields. The fields were not the only place where one could find Bettas however.
They were also living in ditches, stagnant ponds and gentle flowing streams.

Known as pla kat, which means tearing or biting fish, the wild Bettas
generally would have short-lasting fights of only a few minutes or so. However,
once the Siamese started to breed them specifically for fighting, these matches
could go on for hours. The winner was determined, not by the wounds that he
inflicted, but instead by his willingness to continue fighting. The losing fish

retreated and the match was over. Damage to the fish generally was nothing more
than torn fins, with serious damage rarely seen. However, damage to the families
of the men betting on the fish was sometimes substantial, with potential losses
as great as his money, his house and, on occasion, his wife or other family

Seeing the obvious popularity of these fights, the King of Siam started
licensing and collecting these fighting fish. In 1840, he gave some of his
prized fish to a man who, in turn, gave them to Dr. Theodor Cantor, a medical
scientist from Bangor. Describing these fish in an article nine years later, Dr.
Cantor gave them the name Macropodus Pugnax. In 1909, Mr. Tate Regan renamed
those Betta Splendens, noting that there already was a species with the name

that Dr. Cantor had given to them. It is believed that Mr. Regan got the name
from a warrior-like tribe of people named “Bettah”.

By the last quarter of the 1800’s, the Betta Splendens were introduced into
France and Germany and in 1910 they were first seen in the United States.
Seventeen years later, Frank Locke of San Francisco received his first Bettas.
They were light-colored with brilliant red fins and he gave them the name Betta
Cambodia. With the variety of colors and color combinations that were being
introduced, these fish were considered to be different species, thus a long list
of alternate names was created.

Today, Betta Splendens are the most popular fish with breeders in the U.S.
and Japan. Commercial Betta farms in Malaya and Singapore breed both display
Splendens and fighting Splendens with the breeding of the fighters producing the
most revenue. Fighters are often discarded following their matches and new ones
are bought, whereas display Splendens do not need to be replaced for quite some