Friday, May 15, 2009

Arowana Origins

Hinduism and Budhism, some kingdoms were formed in Sumatra and Java island and
ever reached their endurance with area scooping Malaysia, Mindanao island in

Under the power of
Majapahit area since the 7th till 14th century which the coming of Arabians

trader from Gujarat, India that took along Islam.

When Europeans came in the beginning of the 16th century, till in 17th
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century which Netherlands came as the strongest power in equator land. Until
in process era of flora and fauna variety evolution, that happened in This
equator land. The ancient fish is not depleted, that was arwana (Scleropages
formosus). This fish one century ago almost not to be known, till in 1844
two german experts; Muller and Schlegel interestedby the beauty of the fish
which they met in South America. Their research found that this fish was not
known yet. Both of them gave the name Osteoglossum formosum. So, in 1932
Netherlands zoologist; Max Weber and L.F. de Beaufort changed the name
becoming Scleropages formosus. Till the last founding by a Japanese expert;
Kanazawa in 1966,that had been found many kinds of arwana. At least there
were four genus; they are Arapaima in one species (Arapaima gigas),
Osteoglossum ferreirai, then genus Scleropages in four species; they are
Scleropages formosus, s. guntheri, S. leichardti and S. jardini. The
lastgenus is Clupisudis in only one species; Cluisudis nilot.

In Indonesia, many of super red arwana (S. formosus) were found. So many of
this kind is in rivers and in lakes in Sintang, Kapuas Hulu. The rivers that
is Kapuas river branches have so many kinds of arwana, because the rivers and
the lakes have no stony and the stream is calm and not as rapid as Kapuas
river. The red arwana is harder to be fopund in it’s true habitate in Sentarum
lake, Regency of Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan province.

Till basically and known generally that arwana (Scleropages formosus) is of of
fresh water species from South East Asia. This fish has a long size. Asian
arwana generally has silver colour. Asia arwana is also called dragon fish
because often connected with dragon from Chinese Mythology. Beside in West
Kalimantan, arwana is also found in Riau and Jambi. But it’s kind is red
arwana (golden red arwana). This kind is still spcies of Scleropages formosus.
Basic colour of Sumatra arwana is golden yellow on the head and tail area.
It’s tail is red. This arwana has no red colour on the lips. But it’s
performance is’s as good as super red arwana.

The other kind of arwana in Indonesia is green arwana, that is also found
plenty in Ka;limantan. That is in Melawai river and Mensiku river. The main
nature is green colour on the tail. But this green colour often unseen because
of covered by red colour. Only in nature, green colour is more clear to see.
This arwana’s habitate is the river that has not too clean water, and
brownish. Two kinds of other arwana that also live in Indonesia, they are in
papua, but their population are’t too many. Collectors like more to hunt this
kind in Australia that has high population.

In Australia, the population of Scleropages jardini kind and Scleropages
leichardti are high. The first kind mainly exist in queensland river and
Jardini river. The nature; it’s body has red spot, abdomen part is siler
colour, whereas Scleropages leichardti is many in Fitzroy river, Mary river,
Dauson river and burnett river in Australia. This kind in Indonesia also
founding several small rivers in Papua. But because of the minimum observation
in Papua, many people predict the population of both kinds of arwana are large
enough. Whereas arwana silver and black arwana are many found in South
America, North America and several riers in Africa. In Indonesia, as the
population in Papua has no clear data by government.

While we know that Asian arwana is original species in South East Asia rivers
expecially Indonesia. There are four kinds of colour that we found on

  • Green, found in Indonesia, Vietnam, Birma, Thailand and Malaysia.
  • Gold with red tail, found in Indonesia.
  • Gold, found in Malaysia.
  • Red, found in Indonesia.

Asia arwana that registered in depleted species draft which it’s status is
depleted expecially super red arwana by IUCN in 2004. The amount of this
species is decrease caused by high level of trading because of the high price
as aquarium fish, mainly by Asian people, the follower of feng shui, whom can
pay high price for this fish. Generally arwana divided of four main kinds;
they are Asian arwana (Scleropages formosus), Australian arwana (Scleopages
jardini/leichardti), South America arwana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum/erreirai)
and African arwana. Every this group has uniqueness and also each
specification but Asia arwana is the most expensive group and it’s sales is in
international level.

While CITES (Convention on International Trade in endangered Species of wild
fauna and flora) is agreement of nations that plan rules and protection fauna
and flora species that is worried to be endangered. The history of CITES is
begun from unity if internation about preserving of nature . In 1972, an idea
was made to care to nature and flora and fauna for human being life. So “Human
Environtment Council” was formed among the united nation and made an agreement
about trading of flora and fauna which is in endangered on this earth. Till
conversion in Washinton in the next year, and as the result 72 nations agreed
and signed since the 1st July 1975.

Malaysia government with the system can apply, that two species which is in
CITES control is temoleh fish (Probarbus julleini) and kelisa/arwana fish (Scleropaes
formosus) they can made rule and apply tight control from the government.